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Rallis, Donald N.; Rallis, Helen – Social Studies, 1995
Maintains that the nature and role of geography within social studies has been a major area of debate since 1916. Asserts that geography relies too heavily on rote memorization of facts and neglects geographic thinking. Contends that geography teachers share the blame for this and must change their teaching and evaluation methods. (CFR)
Descriptors: Curriculum Design, Educational Change, Educational History, Elementary Secondary Education
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Hobson, Cindy Graff; Zack, David R. – Social Studies, 1993
Discusses the concept of participatory citizenship in a democracy. Describes the origin and development of the Close Up Foundation, which sponsors study trips for secondary students to Washington, D.C. Asserts that the teaching methods and materials used in the program promote effective learning and citizen participation. (CFR)
Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Civics, Democracy
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Richardson, Scott – Social Studies, 1993
Describes a typical week for a secondary student participating in the Close Up Foundation's Washington-based field trip. Discusses the formal and informal curriculum and the interaction among students from different parts of the United States. Outlines Close Up programs at the local and state levels and the emphasis on lifelong learning. (CFR)
Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Civics, Community Education
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Bridges, Bob – Social Studies, 1993
Describes the teacher education programs of the Close Up Foundation. Discusses a week-long Washington, D.C., program that brings students and teachers in contact with elected and appointed public officials, lobbyists, and media representatives. Outlines a summer institutes program and an exchange program for U.S. and Japanese teachers. (CFR)
Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civics, Democracy, Democratic Values
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Barr, Hugh – Social Studies, 1993
Reviews the history, characteristics, and impact of the New Social Studies movement in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s. Describes the educational goals, teaching methods, and instructional materials commonly used in the New Zealand social studies curriculum. (CFR)
Descriptors: Course Content, Critical Thinking, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Guides
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Harris, Karen H.; Longstreet, Wilma S. – Social Studies, 1990
Argues that standardized testing undermines creativity and individuality. Contends that standardized testing has more to do with control of education than excellence, and discusses the impact of the National Assessment of Educational Progress on educational control. Maintains that flexible, alternative testing can evaluate student performance…
Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Alternative Assessment, Creative Thinking, Educational Change
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Levitt, Gregory A.; Longstreet, Wilma S. – Social Studies, 1993
Argues that teaching authentic civic values in schools frequently requires teaching about controversial issues. Asserts that adequate teacher preparation and continued inservice education is essential for effective instruction about contemporary social problems. Includes two model lessons and a list of organizations that offer materials for civic…
Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Curriculum Development
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Gustafson, Marcia H.; Meagher, Laura Y. – Social Studies, 1993
Describes programs of the Close Up Foundation for young students. Discusses group projects developed for the Civic Achievement Award Program that emphasize community service and cooperative learning. Concludes with a description of plans to develop Close Up programs for the elementary grades. (CFR)
Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility, Class Activities