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Sawi, Oliver M.; Rueckl, Jay – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
The processes underlying word reading are shaped by statistical properties of the writing system. According to some theoretical perspectives, reading acquisition should be understood as an exercise in statistical learning (SL). SL involves the extraction of organizing principles from a set of inputs. Several lines of research provide convergent…
Descriptors: Reading, Incidental Learning, Learning Theories, Memory
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Rahmanian, Sadaf; Kuperman, Victor – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
Spelling errors are typically thought of as an "effect" of a word's weak orthographic representation in an individual mind. What if existence of spelling errors is a partial "cause" of effortful orthographic learning and word recognition? We selected words that had homophonic substandard spelling variants of varying frequency…
Descriptors: Spelling, Error Patterns, Orthographic Symbols, Word Recognition
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Hung, Yi-Hui; Frost, Stephen J.; Molfese, Peter; Malins, Jeffrey G.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Rueckl, Jay G.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Pugh, Kenneth R. – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
To investigate the neural basis of a common statistical learning mechanism involved in motor sequence learning and decoding, we recorded brain activation from participants during a serial reaction time (SRT) task and a word reading task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the SRT task, a manual response was made depending on the…
Descriptors: Brain, Word Recognition, Reading Skills, Individual Differences
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Schmalz, Xenia; Moll, Kristina; Mulatti, Claudio; Schulte-Körne, Gerd – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
Previous studies found a relationship between performance on statistical learning (SL) tasks and reading ability and developmental dyslexia. Thus, it has been suggested that the ability to implicitly learn patterns may be important for reading acquisition. Causal mechanisms behind this relationship are unclear: Although orthographic sensitivity to…
Descriptors: Incidental Learning, Reading Ability, Adults, Correlation
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Qi, Zhenghan; Sanchez Araujo, Yoel; Georgan, Wendy C.; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Arciuli, Joanne – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
There is growing interest in the link between implicit statistical learning (SL) and reading ability. Although learning to read involves both auditory and visual modalities, it is not known whether reading skills might be more strongly associated with auditory SL or visual SL. Here we assessed SL across both modalities in 36 typically developing…
Descriptors: Children, Adolescents, Adults, Reading Ability
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van der Kleij, Sanne W.; Groen, Margriet A.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
This study investigated in a longitudinal design how 74 Dutch children with dyslexia and 39 typically developing peers differed in sequential versus spatial implicit learning and overnight consolidation, and it examined whether implicit learning related to (pseudo)word reading development in Grades 5 and 6. The results showed that sequential, but…
Descriptors: Cognitive Ability, Predictor Variables, Reading Skills, Reading Instruction
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Steacy, Laura M.; Compton, Donald L.; Petscher, Yaacov; Elliott, James D.; Smith, Kathryn; Rueckl, Jay G.; Sawi, Oliver; Frost, Stephen J.; Pugh, Kenneth R. – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
As children learn to read, they become sensitive to context-dependent vowel pronunciations in words, considered a form of statistical learning. The work of Treiman and colleagues demonstrated that readers' vowel pronunciations depend on the consonantal context in which the vowel occurs and reading experience. Using explanatory item-response models…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Vowels, Context Effect, Pronunciation
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Vandermosten, Maaike; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol; Golestani, Narly – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
Statistical learning has been proposed to underlie the developmental transition during infancy from allophonic to phonemic speech sound perception. Based on this, it can be hypothesized that in dyslexic individuals, core phonemic representation deficits arise from reduced sensitivity to the statistical distribution of sounds. This study aims to…
Descriptors: Incidental Learning, Speech, Dyslexia, Phonemes
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Gingras, Maxime; Sénéchal, Monique – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
We investigated how and when French children in Grades 1-5 acquire orthographic representations for silent letters and double consonants. Linear mixed-effects modeling analyses on the spelling accuracy scores obtained for 2,519 French words were used to test our predictions. As predicted, the presence of a silent letter or double consonant had a…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, French, Incidental Learning, Alphabets
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Breadmore, Helen L.; Deacon, S. Hélène – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
Our understanding of spelling development has largely been gleaned from analysis of children's accuracy at spelling words under varying conditions and the nature of their errors. Here, we consider whether handwriting durations can inform us about the time course with which children use morphological information to produce accurate spellings of…
Descriptors: Spelling, Age Differences, Cognitive Processes, Time
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Turunen, Tiina; Kiuru, Noona; Poskiparta, Elisa; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
School bullying is associated with externalizing and internalizing problems, but little is known about whether reading difficulties also play a part. We asked how, in Grades 1 and 2, word reading skills and externalizing/internalizing problems predict the degree to which students are involved in bullying in Grade 3. Using a sample of 480 Finnish…
Descriptors: Reading Research, Behavior Problems, Victims, Bullying
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Joye, Nelly; Broc, Lucie; Olive, Thierry; Dockrell, Julie – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
Spelling difficulties often occur in children with developmental language disorder (DLD), the extent and drivers of these difficulties are underspecified. Meta-analyses were conducted to address this gap. We identified child-based factors (age, language spoken, profile of difficulties) and task-based factors (text production or dictation) as…
Descriptors: Spelling, Children, Developmental Disabilities, Language Impairments
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Rossi, Maya; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Ouellette, Gene – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
Variations in the accuracy and stability of a word's spelling can be used to gauge the quality of its underlying orthographic representation. The Lexical Quality Hypothesis (LQH) contends that words with higher quality cognitive representations should be accessed more efficiently than those with lower quality representations. If this is the case,…
Descriptors: Spelling, Accuracy, Reading Rate, Adolescents
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Araújo, Susana; Faísca, Luís – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
This study presents a meta-analytic review of serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) deficits in individuals with dyslexia relative to typical readers (based on 216 effect sizes comprising 8335 dyslexic readers, 14,083 age-matched controls, and 921 reading-matched controls). A random-effects model analysis indicated a large impairment in speeded…
Descriptors: Developmental Disabilities, Dyslexia, Naming, Word Recognition
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Treiman, Rebecca; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Kessler, Brett – Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019
We examined the predictive value of early spelling for later reading performance by analyzing data from 970 U.S. children whose spelling was assessed in the summer following the completion of kindergarten (M age = 6 years; 3 months). The word reading performance of most of the children was then tested after the completion of Grade 1 (age 7;5),…
Descriptors: Reading Achievement, Spelling, Predictor Variables, Kindergarten
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