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Wyland, Catherine – Planning and Changing, 2016
Public school district leadership is dominated by males while teaching is dominated by females (Blount, 1998; Glass, Bj√∂rk, & Brunner, 2000; Grogan, 1996). Some may not recognize this as a problem while others might refer to this underrepresentation as a glass ceiling, a sticky floor, a concrete wall, or a glass cliff. In any case, the…
Descriptors: Disproportionate Representation, Females, Superintendents, Demography
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Mazzoni, Tim; And Others – Planning and Changing, 1983
Based on a questionnaire survey of 38 elementary-secondary and postsecondary lobbyists and 22 legislators conducted by the authors in Minnesota in 1978-80, this article examines the effectiveness of two fundamental lobbying strategies--cooperative strategy and advocacy strategy--in educational lobbyists' efforts to influence legislators. (JBM)
Descriptors: Advocacy, Change Strategies, Cooperation, Educational Legislation
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Lander, Donna A.; Sederberg, Charles H. – Planning and Changing, 1983
To explore the diversity in special education revenue-expenditure relationships, the financial statuses of six Minnesota school districts were compared to determine the ratio of state, local, and federal revenues to districts' expenditures for mandated programs. (JW)
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education, Expenditures, Federal Aid
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Nasstrom, Roy R.; Pier, Craig D. – Planning and Changing, 1983
Comparing Minnesota principals who have collectively bargained with their school boards and those principals who have not, this study covers the years 1973-83 in the areas of agreement rights (responsibilities, dues deductions, leave, grievance, and seniority) and indicators of satisfaction (salary, authority, communication with superintendents…
Descriptors: Administrative Problems, Collective Bargaining, Contracts, Elementary Secondary Education
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Balm, Gerald J.; Blomberg, Robert – Planning and Changing, 1987
As part of a strategic planning effort guiding community socioeconomic development through 2000, the citizens of Rochester, Minnesota, tackled the problem of providing equitable, accessible, and accountable higher education. Studying external factors and developing an internal situation analysis led to a set of higher education issues and…
Descriptors: Access to Education, Accountability, Economic Development, Educational Planning
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Mazzoni, Tim L. – Planning and Changing, 1985
An analysis of structured interviews conducted in 1973, 1979, and 1984 with state legislators and school lobbyists and 14 case studies that investigated issues in Minnesota state school policymaking reveal that influence relationships do not correspond to the bureaucratic model. Political leaders influence policymaking far more than do…
Descriptors: Bureaucracy, Educational Finance, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education
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Mazzoni, Tim L. – Planning and Changing, 1982
An attitudinal survey of 28 Minnesota legislative and interest-group policy makers in education examined educational groups' fragmentation, linkages, lobbying power, legislators' information resources, and initiation and accommodation between legislators and interest groups. Among the conclusions is that educational lobbyists' power in the…
Descriptors: Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Information Sources, Intergroup Relations