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Rowe, Steven E. – Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, 2010
This essay examines the formation, operation, and social effects of adult education classes in France during the nineteenth century. These classes were created and operated prior to the formation of France's national education system and were part of the expansion of primary schooling for the working class, or more generally for "the…
Descriptors: Working Class, Elementary Education, Adult Education, Social Stratification
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Milewski, Patrice – Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, 2008
Teachers' institutes for public elementary school teachers in Ontario began to be implemented in the middle of the nineteenth century as a result of the efforts of Egerton Ryerson Superintendent of Schools for Canada West as Ontario was then known. They were based on similar practices that Ryerson had observed on an educational tour in 1845 during…
Descriptors: State Officials, Teacher Attendance, Foreign Countries, Teacher Certification