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van de Pol, Janneke; Mercer, Neil; Volman, Monique – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2019
Providing contingent or adaptive support (i.e., scaffolding) is effective. Yet it is unclear how it promotes students' learning. In this mixed-methods study, we investigated to what extent the effect of contingent support for students' learning is mediated by the extent to which students take up teachers' support in subsequent small-group work. We…
Descriptors: Scaffolding (Teaching Technique), Student Attitudes, Small Group Instruction, Group Dynamics
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Slakmon, Benzi; Schwarz, Baruch B. – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
The aim of this article is to increase understanding of the development of spatial practices in virtual learning environments. The spatial change and development in 38 small-group e-discussions taken from a data set of a yearlong 8th-grade humanities course are described and analyzed. We show that the focus on spatial changes in computer-supported…
Descriptors: Cooperative Learning, Virtual Classrooms, Group Discussion, Spatial Ability
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Sengupta, Pratim; Krinks, Kara D.; Clark, Douglas B. – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2015
How does deep conceptual change occur when students play well-designed educational games? To answer this question, we present a case study in the form of a microgenetic analysis of a student's processes of knowledge construction as he played a conceptually-integrated digital game (SURGE Next) designed to support learning about Newtonian mechanics.…
Descriptors: Educational Games, Physics, Science Instruction, Technology Uses in Education
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Kapur, Manu – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2014
A total of 136 eighth-grade math students from 2 Singapore schools learned from either productive failure (PF) or vicarious failure (VF). PF students "generated" solutions to a complex problem targeting the concept of variance that they had not learned yet before receiving instruction on the targeted concept. VF students…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Grade 8, Mathematics Instruction, Failure
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Gobert, Janice D.; Sao Pedro, Michael; Raziuddin, Juelaila; Baker, Ryan S. – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2013
We present a method for assessing science inquiry performance, specifically for the inquiry skill of designing and conducting experiments, using educational data mining on students' log data from online microworlds in the Inq-ITS system (Inquiry Intelligent Tutoring System; www.inq-its.org). In our approach, we use a 2-step process: First we use…
Descriptors: Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Science Education, Inquiry, Science Process Skills
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van de Sande, Carla C.; Greeno, James G. – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2012
We use a concept of framing to explain 3 cases in which participants initially lacked mutual understanding but then achieved significant mutual understanding. The cases were all consistent with a pattern of "positional framing" that includes a human participant who is inquiring, which we call a "listener", and a "source", which may be another…
Descriptors: Cognitive Structures, Algebra, Group Dynamics, Interaction
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Izsak, Andrew; Caglayan, Gunhan; Olive, John – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2009
We describe how 1 Algebra I teacher and her 8th-grade students used meta-representational knowledge when generating and evaluating equations to solve word problems. Analyzing data from a sequence of 4 lessons, we found that the teacher and her students used criteria for evaluating equations, in addition to other types of knowledge (e.g., different…
Descriptors: Word Problems (Mathematics), Equations (Mathematics), Algebra, Mathematics Instruction
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Gresalfi, Melissa Sommerfeld – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2009
This article presents an analysis of how students' dispositions toward learning shift and change over time through their engagement with particular classroom practices and identifies classroom practices that support the development of more productive dispositions. An analysis of 4 purposefully selected students from 2 different classrooms reveals…
Descriptors: Teacher Attitudes, Mathematics Instruction, Student Attitudes, Attitude Change
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Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P. – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2009
This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with…
Descriptors: Units of Study, Earth Science, Faculty Development, Teacher Competencies
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Jurow, A. Susan; Hall, Rogers; Ma, Jasmine Y. – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2008
This article examines how conversations during design reviews in which 8th-grade mathematics students shared population models with visiting specialists expanded the disciplinary expertise of the classroom. "Re-contextualizing" is a conversational exchange that visiting specialists initiated to invite groups to consider their models in novel…
Descriptors: Speech Communication, Peer Evaluation, Middle School Students, Secondary School Mathematics
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Moschkovich, Judit N. – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2008
This article examines a classroom discussion of multiple interpretations of the scales on two distance versus time graphs. The analysis describes how two students and a teacher used multiple meanings for phrases of the form "I went by" and coordinated these meanings with different views of the scales. Students' ambiguous and shifting meanings did…
Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Mathematical Concepts, Concept Formation
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Ellis, Amy B. – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2007
This article presents a cohesive, empirically grounded categorization system differentiating the types of generalizations students constructed when reasoning mathematically. The generalization taxonomy developed out of an empirical study conducted during a 3-week teaching experiment and a series of individual interviews. Qualitative analysis of…
Descriptors: Generalization, Classification, Experiments, Interviews
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Gottlieb, Eli – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2007
Over the last decade, researchers have become increasingly interested in students' beliefs about the nature of knowledge and how these beliefs develop. Although initial psychological accounts portrayed epistemic development as a domain-independent process of cognitive maturation, recent studies have found trajectories of epistemic development to…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Values, Cultural Context, Punishment
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Rosenberg, Seth; Hammer, David; Phelan, Jessica – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2006
Research on personal epistemologies (Hofer & Pintrich, 2002) has mostly conceptualized them as stable beliefs or stages of development. On these views, researchers characterize individual students' epistemologies with single, coherent descriptions. Evidence of variability in student epistemologies, however, suggests the need for more complex…
Descriptors: Grade 8, Epistemology, Classroom Communication, Geology
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Jurow, A. Susan – Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2005
Project-based curricula have the potential to engage students' interests. But how do students become interested in the goals of a project? This article documents how a group of 8th-grade students participated in an architectural design project called the Antarctica Project. The project is based on the imaginary premise that students need to design…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Middle School Students, Grade 8, Building Design