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Showing 31 to 45 of 79 results Save | Export
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Kwisthout, Johan – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
When computer scientists discuss the computational complexity of, for example, finding the shortest path from building A to building B in some town or city, their starting point typically is a formal description of the problem at hand, e.g., a graph with weights on every edge where buildings correspond to vertices, routes between buildings to…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Computation, Abstract Reasoning, Difficulty Level
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Batchelder, William H.; Alexander, Gregory E. – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
This paper provides a critical examination of the current state and future possibility of formal cognitive theory for insight problem solving and its associated "aha!" experience. Insight problems are contrasted with move problems, which have been formally defined and studied extensively by cognitive psychologists since the pioneering…
Descriptors: Intuition, Problem Solving, Cognitive Processes, Theories
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Ohlsson, Stellan – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
The research paradigm invented by Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon in the late 1950s dominated the study of problem solving for more than three decades. But in the early 1990s, problem solving ceased to drive research on complex cognition. As part of this decline, Newell and Simon's most innovative research practices--especially their method for…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Heuristics, Search Strategies, Cognitive Processes
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Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Difficulty Level, Expertise, Decision Making
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MacGregor, James N. – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
A complete, non-trivial, traveling sales tour problem contains at least one "indentation", where nodes in the interior of the point set are connected between two adjacent nodes on the boundary. Early research reported that human tours exhibited fewer such indentations than expected. A subsequent explanation proposed that this was because…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Mathematical Applications, Graphs, Foreign Countries
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Carruthers, Sarah; Masson, Michael E. J.; Stege, Ulrike – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
Recent studies on a computationally hard visual optimization problem, the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP), indicate that humans are capable of finding close to optimal solutions in near-linear time. The current study is a preliminary step in investigating human performance on another hard problem, the Minimum Vertex Cover Problem, in which…
Descriptors: Performance, Problem Solving, Graphs, Mathematics
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Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…
Descriptors: Intuition, Learning Processes, Metacognition, Associative Learning
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Storm, Benjamin C.; Koppel, Rebecca H. – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
Thinking and remembering can cause forgetting. In the context of remembering, retrieving one item can cause the forgetting of other items (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). A similar phenomenon has been observed in the context of creative problem solving--attempting to generate a target associate in the Remote Associates Test (RAT) can cause…
Descriptors: Cues, Problem Solving, Memory, Undergraduate Students
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Haarmann, Henk J.; George, Timothy; Smaliy, Alexei; Dien, Joseph – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
Previous studies found that performance on the remote associates test (RAT) improves after a period of incubation and that increased alpha brain waves over the right posterior brain predict the emergence of RAT insight solutions. We report an experiment that tested whether increased alpha brain waves during incubation improve RAT performance.…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Problem Solving, Cognitive Processes, Neurology
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Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals,…
Descriptors: Verbal Learning, Problem Solving, Visual Learning, Attention
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Dry, Matthew J.; Preiss, Kym; Wagemans, Johan – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
We investigated human performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) and Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (MST-P) in regards to a factor that has previously received little attention within the literature: the spatial distributions of TSP and MST-P stimuli. First, we describe a method for quantifying the relative degree of…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Mathematical Applications, Graphs, Performance
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Smith, Steven M.; Sifonis, Cynthia M.; Angello, Genna – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
Does spreading activation from incidentally encountered hints cause incubation effects? We used Remote Associates Test (RAT) problems to examine effects of incidental clues on impasse resolution. When solution words were seen incidentally 3-sec before initially unsolved problems were retested, more problems were resolved (Experiment 1). When…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Creative Thinking, Semantics, Creativity
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Aiello, Daniel A.; Jarosz, Andrew F.; Cushen, Patrick J.; Wiley, Jennifer – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
There is a general assumption that a more controlled or more focused attentional state is beneficial for most cognitive tasks. However, there has been a growing realization that creative problem solving tasks, such as the Remote Associates Task (RAT), may benefit from a less controlled solution approach. To test this hypothesis, in a 2x2 design,…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Problem Solving, Creative Thinking, Hypothesis Testing
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Cranford, Edward A.; Moss, Jarrod – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
Compound Remote Associate (CRA) problems have been used to investigate insight problem solving using both behavioral and neuroimaging techniques. However, it is unclear to what extent CRA problems exhibit characteristics of insight such as impasses and restructuring. CRA problem-solving characteristics were examined in a study in which…
Descriptors: Intuition, Protocol Analysis, Problem Solving, Cognitive Restructuring
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Collier, Azurii K.; Beeman, Mark – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
Often when failing to solve problems, individuals report some idea of the solution, but cannot explicitly access the idea. We investigated whether such intuition would relate to improvements in solving and to the manner in which a problem was solved after a 24- hour delay. On Day 1, participants attempted to solve Compound Remote Associate…
Descriptors: Intuition, Problem Solving, Recall (Psychology), Time Factors (Learning)
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