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Dry, Matthew J.; Fontaine, Elizabeth L. – Journal of Problem Solving, 2014
The Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) is a computationally difficult combinatorial optimization problem. In spite of its relative difficulty, human solvers are able to generate close-to-optimal solutions in a close-to-linear time frame, and it has been suggested that this is due to the visual system's inherent sensitivity to certain geometric…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Geographic Location, Computation, Visual Stimuli
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Steingroever, Helen; Wetzels, Ruud; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan – Journal of Problem Solving, 2013
The Iowa gambling task (IGT) is one of the most popular tasks used to study decision-making deficits in clinical populations. In order to decompose performance on the IGT in its constituent psychological processes, several cognitive models have been proposed (e.g., the Expectancy Valence (EV) and Prospect Valence Learning (PVL) models). Here we…
Descriptors: Decision Making, Reinforcement, Comparative Analysis, Models
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Carruthers, Sarah; Stege, Ulrike – Journal of Problem Solving, 2013
This article is concerned with how computer science, and more exactly computational complexity theory, can inform cognitive science. In particular, we suggest factors to be taken into account when investigating how people deal with computational hardness. This discussion will address the two upper levels of Marr's Level Theory: the computational…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Computation, Difficulty Level, Computer Science
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Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim – Journal of Problem Solving, 2012
This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Difficulty Level, Expertise, Decision Making
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Hemmati, Mehdi; Smith, J. Cole – Journal of Problem Solving, 2011
We consider a version of an optimal stopping problem, in which a customer is presented with a finite set of items, one by one. The customer is aware of the number of items in the finite set and the minimum and maximum possible value of each item, and must purchase exactly one item. When an item is presented to the customer, she or he observes its…
Descriptors: Consumer Economics, Problem Solving, Decision Making, Purchasing
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Taatgen, Niels A. – Journal of Problem Solving, 2011
The minimal control principle (Taatgen, 2007) predicts that people strive for problem-solving strategies that require as few internal control states as possible. In an experiment with the Abstract Decision Making task (ADM task; Joslyn & Hunt, 1998) the reward structure was manipulated to make either a low-control strategy or a high-strategy…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Abstract Reasoning, Decision Making, Learning Strategies
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Robinson, A. Emanuel; Sloman, Steven A.; Hagmayer, York; Hertzog, Christopher K. – Journal of Problem Solving, 2010
The role of causal beliefs in people's decisions when faced with economic problems was investigated. Two experiments are reported that vary the causal structure in prisoner's dilemma-like economic situations. We measured willingness to cooperate or defect and collected justifications and think-aloud protocols to examine the strategies that people…
Descriptors: Causal Models, Beliefs, Problem Solving, Economics
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Goldstone, Robert L.; Pizlo, Zygmunt – Journal of Problem Solving, 2009
In November 2008 at Purdue University, the 2nd Workshop on Human Problem Solving was held. This workshop, which was a natural continuation of the first workshop devoted almost exclusively to optimization problems, addressed a wider range of topics that reflect the scope of the "Journal of Problem Solving." The workshop was attended by 35…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Universities, Workshops, Educational Researchers
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Yi, Sheng Kung M.; Steyvers, Mark; Lee, Michael – Journal of Problem Solving, 2009
Bandit problems provide an interesting and widely-used setting for the study of sequential decision-making. In their most basic form, bandit problems require people to choose repeatedly between a small number of alternatives, each of which has an unknown rate of providing reward. We investigate restless bandit problems, where the distributions of…
Descriptors: Performance, Decision Making, Problem Solving, Rewards
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Burns, Nicholas R.; Lee, Michael D.; Vickers, Douglas – Journal of Problem Solving, 2006
Studies of human problem solving have traditionally used deterministic tasks that require the execution of a systematic series of steps to reach a rational and optimal solution. Most real-world problems, however, are characterized by uncertainty, the need to consider an enormous number of variables and possible courses of action at each stage in…
Descriptors: Individual Differences, Performance, Problem Solving, Intelligence