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Bailey, Bill; Unwin, Lorna – Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 2008
In 1957, 12 years after the end of World War II, the Ministry of Education issued Circular 323 to promote the development of an element of "liberal studies" in courses offered by technical and further education (FE) colleges in England. This was perceived to be in some ways a peculiar or uncharacteristic development. However, it lasted…
Descriptors: Independent Study, Compulsory Education, Adult Education, Foreign Countries
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Piercy, Gemma; Murray, Nicky; Abernethy, Gloria – Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 2006
Strong education and training systems are viewed as a route to increased labour market participation for groups that have traditionally been excluded from, or marginalised in, the labour market. Engagement in the labour force for such groups has both individual and societal benefits. However, while this emphasis on an increased role for the state…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Labor Market, Vocational Education, Womens Education