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Showing 61 to 75 of 463 results Save | Export
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Brown, Sarah A.; Alibali, Martha W. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2018
This study investigated effects of feedback and exposure to alternative strategies on strategy change in children (N = 106, age range = 7;3-10;0) learning about mathematical equivalence. Children's strategies were evaluated before and after a brief instructional intervention. During the intervention, children either were exposed to a set of 4…
Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Problem Solving, Mathematics Instruction, Educational Strategies
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Mix, Kelly S.; Smith, Linda B.; Stockton, Jerri DaSha; Cheng, Yi-Ling; Barterian, Justin A. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Two experiments examined whether concrete models support place value learning. In Experiment 1 (N = 149), 7-year-olds were trained with either a) symbols alone or b) symbols and base-10 blocks. Children in both groups showed significant growth overall, but there were specific effects favoring one training type over another. Symbols-only training…
Descriptors: Symbols (Mathematics), Models, Number Concepts, Mathematics Instruction
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Wang, Su-hua; Onishi, Kristine H. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Infants' representations of physical events are surprisingly flexible. Brief exposure to one event can immediately enhance infants' representations of another event. The present experiments tested two potential mechanisms underlying this priming: enhanced encoding or improved retrieval. Five-month-olds saw a target block become hidden inside a…
Descriptors: Infants, Cognitive Processes, Knowledge Representation, Observation
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Sheppard, Kelly W.; Cheatham, Carol L. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
The Electric Maze Task (EMT) is a novel planning task designed to allow flexible testing of planning abilities across a broad age range and to incorporate manipulations to test underlying planning abilities, such as working-memory and inhibitory control skills. The EMT was tested in a group of 63 typically developing 7- to 12-year-olds.…
Descriptors: Planning, Children, Preadolescents, Short Term Memory
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Roberts, Steven O.; Williams, Amber D.; Gelman, Susan A. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Cross-race friendships can promote the development of positive racial attitudes, yet they are relatively uncommon and decline with age. In an effort to further our understanding of the extent to which children expect cross-race friendships to occur, we examined 4- to 6-year-olds' (and adults') use of race when predicting other children's…
Descriptors: Adults, Racial Relations, Positive Attitudes, Racial Attitudes
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Weidinger, Nicole; Lindner, Katrin; Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Goldenberg, Georg – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
This study examined how 5- and 9-year-old children (N = 40) produce pantomimes of object use on verbal request. The task required participants to enact an action with an imagined object. Results showed that with age, children (a) proceeded from body part as object to imaginary object and (b) incorporated into their pantomimes more distinctive…
Descriptors: Children, Pantomime, Age Differences, Cognitive Development
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Hardecker, Susanne; Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Tomasello, Michael – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Much research has investigated how children relate to norms taught to them by adult authorities. Very few studies have investigated norms that arise out of children's own peer interactions. In two studies, we investigated how 5- and 7-year-old children teach, enforce, and understand rules that they either created themselves or were taught by an…
Descriptors: Child Development, Behavior Standards, Social Behavior, Children
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Lyons, Ashley B.; Cheries, Erik W. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Adults automatically infer a person's social disposition and future behavior based on the many properties they observe about how they look and sound. The goal of the current study is to explore the developmental origins of this bias. We tested whether 12-month-old infants automatically infer a character's social disposition (e.g., whether they are…
Descriptors: Inferences, Personality, Infants, Bias
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Reyes-Jaquez, Bolivar; Echols, Catharine H. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
In two studies, we examined how 5-­year-­olds weigh similarity against other factors in deciding from whom to learn. Specifically, we examined the factors of history of and reasons for inaccuracy in Experiment 1 (n = 64) and of competence and authority in Experiment 2 (n = 32). In the 1st phase of Experiments 1 and 2, children's social biases were…
Descriptors: Social Bias, Young Children, Decision Making, Influences
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Loehr, Abbey M.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Research has demonstrated that providing labels helps children notice key features of examples. Much less is known about how different labels impact children's ability to make inferences about the structure underlying mathematical notation. We tested the impact of labeling decimals such as 0.34 using formal place-value labels ("3 tenths and 4…
Descriptors: Number Concepts, Arithmetic, Problem Solving, Elementary School Students
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Masnick, Amy M.; Klahr, David; Knowles, Erica R. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
The ability to use numerical evidence to revise beliefs about the physical world is an essential component of scientific reasoning that begins to develop in middle childhood. In 2 studies, we explored how data variability and consistency with participants' initial beliefs about causal factors associated with pendulums affected their ability to…
Descriptors: Beliefs, Children, Adults, Influences
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Roebers, Claudia M.; Spiess, Manuela – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Although metacognition is considered a central aspect of self-regulated learning and is often linked to learning outcomes, little is known about the intraindividual development and factors that lead to developmental improvement over time. This longitudinal study investigated 2nd graders' (N = 119, aged 8-9 years) metacognitive monitoring and…
Descriptors: Metacognition, Cognitive Development, Grade 2, Elementary School Students
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Blums, Angela; Belsky, Jay; Grimm, Kevin; Chen, Zhe – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
The present study examined whether and how socioeconomic status (SES) predicts school achievement in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) using structural equation modeling and data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Child Care and Youth Development. The present inquiry addresses gaps in…
Descriptors: Socioeconomic Status, Cognitive Ability, Mathematics Achievement, Science Achievement
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Hurst, Michelle; Anderson, Ursula; Cordes, Sara – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
In mathematically literate societies, numerical information is represented in 3 distinct codes: a verbal code (i.e., number words); a digital, symbolic code (e.g., Arabic numerals); and an analogical code (i.e., quantities; Dehaene, 1992). To communicate effectively using these numerical codes, our understanding of number must involve an…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Numbers, Cognitive Mapping, Models
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Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…
Descriptors: Socialization, Memory, Young Children, Mothers
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