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Ramirez, Gerardo; Fries, Laura; Gunderson, Elizabeth; Schaeffer, Marjorie W.; Maloney, Erin A.; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2019
Learning to read is a critical but often challenging academic task for young children. In the current study, we explore the relation between children's reading affect--particularly anxiety--and reading achievement in the early years of reading acquisition. We hypothesized that reading anxiety would relate to reading achievement across the school…
Descriptors: Reading Strategies, Anxiety, Reading Attitudes, Reading Achievement
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Seger, Benedikt T.; Wannagat, Wienke; Nieding, Gerhild – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2019
In our current culture, children are exposed to a huge amount of audiovisual media, of which many formats include animated pictures, such as in videos, for instance. The current study addresses the use of audiovisual media in order to increase the effectiveness of learning and teaching. We examined how auditory text, audiovisual text with static…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Children, Memory, Animation
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Haber, Amanda S.; Sobel, David M.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2019
We investigated how young children evaluate disagreements between two people and whether formal education affects this capacity. We compared 120 first graders tested during the 2014-2015 academic year, who received a direct instruction-based curriculum, with 112 first graders tested in the same school system during the 2016-2017 academic year, who…
Descriptors: Foster Care, Elementary School Students, Abstract Reasoning, Inquiry
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Mock, Julia; Huber, Stefan; Cress, Ulrike; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2019
The metaphor of the mental number line accounts for numerous empirical effects of spatial-numerical associations. In the present study, we aimed at investigating directional spatial-numerical associations reflected by SNARC-like digit-direction and sign-direction congruency effects as well as the sign-digit compatibility effect when 6th graders…
Descriptors: Elementary School Mathematics, Elementary School Students, Grade 6, Knowledge Level
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McMurray, Bob; Roembke, Tanja C.; Hazeltine, Eliot – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2019
Many details in reading curricula (e.g., the order of materials) have analogs in laboratory studies of learning (e.g., blocking/interleaving). Principles of learning from cognitive science could be used to structure these materials to optimize learning, but they are not commonly applied. Recent work bridges this gap by "field testing"…
Descriptors: Phoneme Grapheme Correspondence, Reading Instruction, Cognitive Science, Spelling
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Coffman, Jennifer L.; Grammer, Jennie K.; Hudson, Kesha N.; Thomas, Taylor E.; Villwock, Diane; Ornstein, Peter A. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2019
As children transition from the early to later grades of elementary school, they become increasingly skilled at employing a variety of techniques -- such as rehearsal and organizational strategies -- for remembering information. Developmental changes in strategy use have been well documented, but little is known about the extent to which these…
Descriptors: Study Skills, Memory, Longitudinal Studies, Correlation
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Sun, Sumin; Schweizer, Karl; Ren, Xuezhu – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2019
This study examined whether there is a developmental difference in the emergence of an item-position effect in intelligence testing. The item-position effect describes the dependency of the item's characteristics on the positions of the items and is explained by learning. Data on fluid intelligence measured by Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices…
Descriptors: Intelligence Tests, Test Items, Difficulty Level, Short Term Memory
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Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Park, Daeun; Maloney, Erin A.; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2018
School-entry math achievement is a strong predictor of math achievement through high school. We asked whether reciprocal relations among math achievement, math anxiety, and entity motivational frameworks (believing that ability is fixed and a focus on performance) can help explain these persistent individual differences. We assessed 1st and 2nd…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Achievement, Elementary School Students
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Brandone, Amanda C.; Klimek, Brittany – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2018
In everyday life, we use folk theories about the mind and behavior to understand ourselves and others. An important part of our folk theory of mind is our intuitions about the role of the self in mental functioning--namely, whether the self is able to control each mental operation. The current study explored beliefs about the nature of control…
Descriptors: Theory of Mind, Folk Culture, Self Concept, Cognitive Ability
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Byrnes, James P.; Miller-Cotto, Dana; Wang, Aubrey H. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2018
As the United States experiences greater income inequality, more and more students experience an early science achievement gap. This study tested several competing theoretical models of early science achievement with a longitudinal sample of 14,624 children who were followed from kindergarten entry to the end of 1st grade. To understand why and…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Grade 1, Elementary School Students, Kindergarten
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Brown, Sarah A.; Alibali, Martha W. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2018
This study investigated effects of feedback and exposure to alternative strategies on strategy change in children (N = 106, age range = 7;3-10;0) learning about mathematical equivalence. Children's strategies were evaluated before and after a brief instructional intervention. During the intervention, children either were exposed to a set of 4…
Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Problem Solving, Mathematics Instruction, Educational Strategies
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Loehr, Abbey M.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Research has demonstrated that providing labels helps children notice key features of examples. Much less is known about how different labels impact children's ability to make inferences about the structure underlying mathematical notation. We tested the impact of labeling decimals such as 0.34 using formal place-value labels ("3 tenths and 4…
Descriptors: Number Concepts, Arithmetic, Problem Solving, Elementary School Students
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Masnick, Amy M.; Klahr, David; Knowles, Erica R. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
The ability to use numerical evidence to revise beliefs about the physical world is an essential component of scientific reasoning that begins to develop in middle childhood. In 2 studies, we explored how data variability and consistency with participants' initial beliefs about causal factors associated with pendulums affected their ability to…
Descriptors: Beliefs, Children, Adults, Influences
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Roebers, Claudia M.; Spiess, Manuela – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
Although metacognition is considered a central aspect of self-regulated learning and is often linked to learning outcomes, little is known about the intraindividual development and factors that lead to developmental improvement over time. This longitudinal study investigated 2nd graders' (N = 119, aged 8-9 years) metacognitive monitoring and…
Descriptors: Metacognition, Cognitive Development, Grade 2, Elementary School Students
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Viterbori, Paola; Traverso, Laura; Usai, M. Carmen – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2017
This study investigated the roles of different executive function (EF) components (inhibition, shifting, and working memory) in 2-step arithmetic word problem solving. A sample of 139 children aged 8 years old and regularly attending the 3rd grade of primary school were tested on 6 EF tasks measuring different EF components, a reading task and a…
Descriptors: Role, Executive Function, Short Term Memory, Arithmetic
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