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Showing 451 to 465 of 471 results Save | Export
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Kuhn, Deanna; Dean, David, Jr. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
Literature on multivariable causal inference (MCI) and literature on scientific reasoning (SR) have proceeded almost entirely independently, although they in large part address the same phenomena. An effort is made to bring these paradigms into close enough alignment with one another to compare implications of the two lines of work and examine how…
Descriptors: Causal Models, Inferences, Holistic Approach, Evidence
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Goldin-Meadow, Susan – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
When a behavior disappears and then resurfaces, developmental psychologists typically look more closely at the behavior to figure out what is different before and after--that is, they increase the grain with an eye toward discovering how the system that generates that behavior has changed. But what ought to count as a U-shaped phenomenon? How…
Descriptors: Developmental Psychology, Individual Development, Cognitive Development, Child Development
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Friend, Margaret – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
The articles featured in this issue make apparent the variety of perceptual and cognitive competencies that follow curvilinear developmental courses as well as the complexities inherent in accounting for such phenomena. What is revealed is the way in which a fit is achieved between organisms and the environments they occupy. Curvilinear…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Developmental Stages, Developmental Psychology, Child Development
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Marcus, Gary F. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
"Little by little, the child develops," wrote an undergraduate in a friend's cognitive development class, and so, for the most part, it is. But what explains the U's of cognitive development? Namy, Campbell, and Tomasello and Cashon and Cohen take a standard approach to understanding U-shaped curves: as the product of a mix of different cognitive…
Descriptors: Measurement Techniques, Error of Measurement, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Development
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Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Thelen, Esther – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
The traditional view of development is stage-like progress toward increasing complexity of form. However, the literature cites many examples in which children do worse before they do better. A major challenge for developmental theory, therefore, is to explain both global progress and apparent regression. In this article, we situate U-shaped…
Descriptors: Theories, Language Acquisition, Child Development, Child Behavior
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Nelson, Charles A. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
All of the target articles in this issue are concerned with trajectories of development, with all focusing in one way or another on U-shaped functions. For purposes of this commentary, the author is primarily concerned with the Cashon and Cohen article. The mechanisms whereby one processes faces represent one of several perceptual/cognitive…
Descriptors: Developmental Psychology, Human Body, Recognition (Psychology), Visual Discrimination
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Muir, Darwin; Hains, Sylvia – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
It has been 20 years since Bever's (1982) and Strauss and Stavy's (1982) books on U-shaped functions in human development were published. The three target articles in this issue describe several old and new U-shaped functions and new theoretical explanations for their existence. In this article, the authors will comment on two aspects of U-shaped…
Descriptors: Developmental Psychology, Individual Development, Cognitive Development, Child Development
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Rogers, Timothy T.; Rakison, David H.; McClelland, James L. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
As the articles in this issue attest, U-shaped curves in development have stimulated a wide spectrum of research across disparate task domains and age groups and have provoked a variety of ideas about their origins and theoretical significance. In the authors' view, the ubiquity of the general pattern suggests that U-shaped curves can arise from…
Descriptors: Child Development, Infants, Age Differences, Child Behavior
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Werker, Janet F.; Hall, D. Geoffrey; Fais, Laurel – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
U-shaped developmental functions, and their N-shaped cousins, have intrigued developmental psychologists for decades because they provide a compelling demonstration that development does not always entail a monotonic increase across age in a single underlying ability. Instead, the causes of development are much more complex. Indeed,…
Descriptors: Developmental Psychology, Individual Development, Cognitive Development, Child Development
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Namy, Laura L.; Campbell, Aimee L.; Tomasello, Michael – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
This article reports 2 experiments examining the changing role of iconicity in symbol learning and its implications regarding the mechanisms supporting symbol-to-referent mapping. Experiment 1 compared 18- and 26-month-olds' mapping of iconic gestures (e.g., hopping gesture for a rabbit) vs. arbitrary gestures (e.g., dropping motion for a rabbit).…
Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Role, Nonverbal Learning, Infants
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Cashon, Cara H.; Cohen, Leslie B. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
The development of the "inversion" effect in face processing was examined in infants 3 to 6 months of age by testing their integration of the internal and external features of upright and inverted faces using a variation of the "switch" visual habituation paradigm. When combined with previous findings showing that 7-month-olds use integrative…
Descriptors: Developmental Psychology, Individual Development, Cognitive Development, Child Development
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Brainerd, C. J. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
The aim of this article is to introduce readers to an alternative way of applying U-shaped functions to understand development, especially cognitive development. In classical developmental applications, age is the abscissa; that is, in the fundamental equation B = f(A), some behavioral variable (B) plots as a U-shaped or inverted U-shaped function…
Descriptors: Infants, Experimental Psychology, Cognitive Development, Language Acquisition
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Feldman, David Henry; Benjamin, Ann C. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
There is by this point no doubt that backward, regressive, negative or degenerative movements occur in cognitive development. The question is "why?" The challenges of the phenomenon have been and continue to be mainly two: identify the range and variety of systematic backward movements that appear in development; and, provide better and better…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Role, Change, Achievement
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Marcovitch, Stuart; Lewkowicz, David J. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
The articles in this collection consider one very interesting puzzle of development: U-shaped developmental functions. At some point during development, an organism might exhibit what seems like a regression from its expected developmental trajectory and, according to continuity models of development, this is aberrant. In this special issue,…
Descriptors: Developmental Psychology, Individual Development, Cognitive Development, Child Development
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Principe, Gabrielle F. – Journal of Cognition and Development, 2004
To examine the extent to which differences in the initial encoding of information affect preschoolers' vulnerability to suggestion, 4 groups of 4-year-olds (N = 54) individually participated in a simulated shopping event in which they were asked to purchase 6 items from a specially constructed grocery store. Half the children had only 1…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Memory, Experiments, Purchasing
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