ERIC Number: EJ1197003
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2018-Dec
Abstractor: As Provided
Parents' Education Is More Important than Their Wealth in Shaping Their Children's Intelligence: Results of 19 Samples in Seven Countries at Different Developmental Levels
Rindermann, Heiner; Ceci, Stephen J.
Journal for the Education of the Gifted, v41 n4 p298-326 Dec 2018
In 19 (sub)samples from seven countries (United States, Austria, Germany, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Vietnam, Brazil), we analyzed the impact of parental education compared with wealth on the cognitive ability of children (aged 4-22 years, total N = 15,297). The background of their families ranged from poor indigenous remote villagers to academic families in developed countries, including parents of the gifted. Children's cognitive ability was measured with mental speed tests, Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFT), the Raven's, Wiener Entwicklungstest (WET), Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT), Piagetian tasks, Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Parental wealth was estimated by asking for income, indirectly by self-assessment of relative wealth, and by evaluating assets. The mean direct effect of parental education was greater than wealth. In path analyses, parental education ([beta][subscript Ed]) also showed a stronger impact on children's intelligence than familial economic status ([beta][subscript In], total effect averages: [beta][subscript Ed] = 0.30-0.45, [beta][subscript In] = 0.09-0.12; N = 15,125, k = 18). The effects on mental speed were smaller than for crystallized intelligence, but still larger for parental education than familial economic status ([beta][subscript Ed[right arrow]MS] = 0.25, [beta][subscript In[right arrow]MS] = 0.00, [beta][subscript Ed[right arrow]CI] = 0.36, [beta][subscript In[right arrow]CI] = 0.09; N = 394, k = 3). Additional factors affecting children's cognitive ability are number of books, marital status, educational behavior of parents, and behavior of children. If added, a general background (ethnicity, migration) factor shows strong effects ([beta][subscript Bg] = 0.30-0.36). These findings are discussed in terms of environmental versus hidden genetic effects.
Descriptors: Parent Background, Educational Attainment, Parent Child Relationship, Intelligence, Family Financial Resources, Correlation, Cross Cultural Studies, Developing Nations, Poverty, Developed Nations, Culture Fair Tests, Armed Forces, Achievement Tests, Elementary Secondary Education, International Assessment, Mathematics Achievement, Mathematics Tests, Science Achievement, Science Tests, Foreign Countries, Reading Achievement, Reading Tests, Grade 4, Intelligence Tests, Secondary School Students, Family Income, Self Evaluation (Individuals), Marital Status, Books, Family Environment, Toddlers, Elementary School Students, College Students, Cognitive Development
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Elementary Education; Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United States; Austria; Vietnam; Brazil; Germany; Costa Rica; Ecuador
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Armed Forces Qualification Test; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; Progress in International Reading Literacy Study; Raven Progressive Matrices; Program for International Student Assessment