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Gorard, Stephen – International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 2019
This paper compares the use of confidence intervals (CIs) and a sensitivity analysis called the number needed to disturb (NNTD), in the analysis of research findings expressed as 'effect' sizes. Using 1,000 simulations of randomised trials with up to 1,000 cases in each, the paper shows that both approaches are very similar in outcomes, and each…
Descriptors: Intervals, Statistics, Social Sciences, Foreign Countries
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Gorard, Stephen; Gorard, Jonathan – International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 2016
This brief paper introduces a new approach to assessing the trustworthiness of research comparisons when expressed numerically. The 'number needed to disturb' a research finding would be the number of counterfactual values that can be added to the smallest arm of any comparison before the difference or 'effect' size disappears, minus the number of…
Descriptors: Statistical Significance, Testing, Sampling, Attrition (Research Studies)