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Biddlecomb, Barry; Carr, Martha – International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2011
The purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns of strategy use in second, third and fourth grade children's arithmetic supported Steffe's model of numerical development. In addition to student-generated strategies, we looked at commonly taught algorithms not considered in Steffe's model to determine whether these algorithms reflected…
Descriptors: Grade 4, Grade 3, Grade 2, Arithmetic
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Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Thom, Jennifer – International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2011
There is mounting research evidence that contests the metaphysical perspective of knowing as mental process detached from the physical world. Yet education, especially in its teaching and learning practices, continues to treat knowledge as something that is necessarily and solely expressed in ideal verbal form. This study is part of a funded…
Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Mathematics Instruction, Educational Research, Cognitive Processes