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Bear, George G.; Harris, Angela; Saraiva de Macedo Lisboa, Carolina; Holst, Bruna – International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 2019
Differences in self-reported perceptions of cognitive-behavioral and emotional engagement between students who were continuously promoted, retained once, or retained multiple times were examined in this study of 199 students, grades 5-9, in Brazil. Retained students reported significantly less cognitive-behavioral engagement than their promoted…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Grade Repetition, Educational Environment, Elementary School Students