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Gorard, Stephen – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2007
This paper presents an argument against the wider adoption of complex forms of data analysis, using multi-level modeling (MLM) as an extended case study. MLM was devised to overcome some deficiencies in existing datasets, such as the bias caused by clustering. The paper suggests that MLM has an unclear theoretical and empirical basis, has not led…
Descriptors: Data Analysis, Research Methodology, Error of Measurement, Error Correction
Gorard, Stephen – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2006
This paper reconsiders long-term, national or socially contextualized trends in a number of important education areas commonly addressed by policy interventions. These include widening participation, teacher training, school performance, the use of targets, and student assessment. In each case, it is very difficult to sustain an argument that…
Descriptors: Educational Trends, Educational Policy, Intervention, Policy Analysis