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ERIC Number: EJ1219563
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-2325-565X
A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Using CRA-SIM vs. Direct Instruction to Teach Multiplication with Regrouping
Flores, Margaret M.; Kaffar, Bradley J.; Hinton, Vanessa
International Journal for Research in Learning Disabilities, v4 n1 p27-40 2019
Mathematics learning standards across the United States include conceptual knowledge of numbers and use of modeling and explanation within computation. The concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence and the Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) have been shown to be effective in increasing students' fluency in computation, including multiplication with regrouping, with a focus on conceptual knowledge. To date, the CRASIM multiplication research has not included a comparison to another method. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by comparing CRA-SIM to Direct Instruction (DI). Twenty-nine elementary- and middle-level students with and without disabilities received either CRA-SIM or DI. While each program resulted in increased fluency in multiplication with regrouping, CRA-SIM led to slight increases in fluency compared to DI. Implications and program components that influenced these results will be discussed.
International Academy for Research in Learning Disabilities. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A