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Grotzer, Tina A.; Solis, S. Lynneth; Tutwiler, M. Shane; Cuzzolino, Megan Powell – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Understanding complex systems requires reasoning about causal relationships that behave or appear to behave probabilistically. Features such as distributed agency, large spatial scales, and time delays obscure co-variation relationships and complex interactions can result in non-deterministic relationships between causes and effects that are best…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Elementary School Science, Kindergarten, Grade 2
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Danish, Joshua; Saleh, Asmalina; Andrade, Alejandro; Bryan, Branden – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Our paper builds on the construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky in Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978) to analyze the relationship between students' answers and the help they receive as they construct them. We report on a secondary analysis of…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Ability, Scaffolding (Teaching Technique), Cognitive Development