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Bonastia, Christopher – History of Education Quarterly, 2016
In July 1963, students from Queens College (QC) and a group of New York City teachers traveled to Prince Edward County (PEC), Virginia, to teach local black youth in Freedom Schools. The county had eliminated public education four years earlier to avoid a desegregation order. PEC Freedom Schools represented the first major effort to recruit an…
Descriptors: Instructional Leadership, African Americans, Counties, Expertise
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Hines, Michael – History of Education Quarterly, 2016
Even though the black community of antebellum New York City lived in a society that marginalized them socially and economically, they were intent on pursuing the basic privileges of American citizenship. One tactic African Americans employed to this end was the tenacious pursuit of education, which leaders believed would act both as an aid in…
Descriptors: African Americans, Urban Areas, United States History, Social Bias
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Gilman, Amy – History of Education Quarterly, 1984
Vast changes took place in urban benevolence toward poor females in the first half of the nineteenth century. Agencies started by upper-class women as private organizations to support needy women became agencies run by salaried, professional, male charity workers whose job it was to train and discipline poor females. (RM)
Descriptors: Economically Disadvantaged, Females, Feminism, Higher Education
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Rousmaniere, Kate – History of Education Quarterly, 1994
Asserts that, in the urban classrooms of the early 20th century, women teachers faced two contradictory images: (1) the idealized view of the gentle, nurturing teacher; and (2) the reality of the harsh working conditions in city schools. Concludes that administrators were content to let classroom teachers deal with disciplinary issues. (CFR)
Descriptors: Classrooms, Corporal Punishment, Discipline Policy, Discipline Problems