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Hirschfield, Paul J. – Future of Children, 2018
Children's school experiences may contribute in many ways to disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system, writes Paul Hirschfield. For example, research shows that black students who violate school rules are more often subject to out-of-school suspensions, which heighten their risk of arrest and increase the odds that once…
Descriptors: School Role, Juvenile Justice, Disproportionate Representation, Minority Group Students
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Reardon, Sean F.; Valentino, Rachel A.; Shores, Kenneth A. – Future of Children, 2012
How well do U.S. students read? In this article, Sean Reardon, Rachel Valentino, and Kenneth Shores rely on studies using data from national and international literacy assessments to answer this question. In part, the answer depends on the specific literacy skills assessed. The authors show that almost all U.S. students can "read" by…
Descriptors: Literacy, Reading Skills, Developed Nations, Race
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Rock, Donald A.; Stenner, A. Jackson – Future of Children, 2005
The authors introduce readers to the research documenting racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness. They describe the key tests, including the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), and several intelligence tests, and describe how they have been administered to several important national samples of…
Descriptors: School Readiness, Intelligence Tests, Test Results, Test Theory