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Snow, Catherine E.; Matthews, Timothy J. – Future of Children, 2016
How does literacy develop in children's early years, and what programs or practices promote adequate literacy for all children? These are the questions Catherine Snow and Timothy Matthews tackle in this article. Fundamental literacy skills can be grouped into two categories, Snow and Matthews write. The first category is "constrained"…
Descriptors: Emergent Literacy, Young Children, Reading Skills, Vocabulary Development
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Reardon, Sean F.; Valentino, Rachel A.; Shores, Kenneth A. – Future of Children, 2012
How well do U.S. students read? In this article, Sean Reardon, Rachel Valentino, and Kenneth Shores rely on studies using data from national and international literacy assessments to answer this question. In part, the answer depends on the specific literacy skills assessed. The authors show that almost all U.S. students can "read" by…
Descriptors: Literacy, Reading Skills, Developed Nations, Race