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Gaziel, Haim H.; Romm, Tsilia – European Journal of Education, 1988
The recent history of the Israeli educational system, particularly its trend toward decentralization, is used to test some common assumptions about the need for centralization to achieve control in times of fiscal constraint, need for improvement, and non-implementation of central policies. (MSE)
Descriptors: Administrative Organization, Centralization, Change Strategies, Decentralization
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Grilo, Eduardo Marcal; Rosa, Manuel Carmelos – European Journal of Education, 1988
Portugal's overall modernization strategy for becoming integrated into the European Community is outlined, the structure and constraints of its higher education system are described, and the role envisioned for higher education in the modernization process is discussed. (MSE)
Descriptors: Change Strategies, College Role, Educational History, Enrollment Rate
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Neave, Guy – European Journal of Education, 1985
Three basic European educational systems are distinguished: state-financed and -controlled system; non-state system that does not rely solely on public financing or management; and private education, dependent on various systems of finance and/or indirect subsidy and controlled by proprietors. The history and problems of private education are…
Descriptors: Accountability, Comparative Education, Educational History, Elementary Secondary Education
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Buachalla, Seamus O. – European Journal of Education, 1985
The historical and present relationship of church and state in Irish education and the educational policies of the churches and the responses of the political system are examined. Some policy issues are analyzed to illustrate the educational policy process and the place of churches in it. (MSE)
Descriptors: Educational History, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries
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Cerych, Ladislav – European Journal of Education, 1980
The late 1970s may be regarded not merely as lacking in significant reform in higher education, but also as a period characterized by a loss of momentum in certain ambitious reforms previously initiated. Some reform strategies succeeded and others did not. (MSE)
Descriptors: Change Strategies, Comparative Education, Educational Change, Educational History
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Kunzel, Klaus – European Journal of Education, 1982
As a result of social, political, and economic influences (primarily the student movement and budgetary constraints in recent years), West Germany's government has been forced to repeal much of the traditional principle of separation between university and state, and a dangerous trend of formalized administrative participation in higher education…
Descriptors: Administrative Organization, College Role, Educational Change, Educational History
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Neave, Guy; Cowper, Henry – European Journal of Education, 1979
Analyzes higher education in Scotland in terms of its history and administrative structure and in light of the myths and beliefs about the traditional Scottish university. Differences from English universities are stressed. Journal available from Editor, Gabriel Fragniere, Institute of Education, 60 rue de la Concorde, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.…
Descriptors: Comparative Education, Educational Needs, Educational Practices, Foreign Countries
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Neave, Guy; Cowper, Henry – European Journal of Education, 1979
The development of the Scottish higher education system over the past century is reviewed. Institutional and administrative structures, growth patterns, and problems that face higher education in Scotland are examined with specific reference to its relationship with higher education throughout the United Kingdom. (BH)
Descriptors: College Administration, Colleges, Comparative Education, Educational History
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Van Vaek, Gilbert; Van daele, Henk – European Journal of Education, 1979
The development of postsecondary technical engineering education in Belgium is traced. Problems that are discussed include: the proliferation of engineering schools, government role, industry school relationship, and the maintenance of high quality engineering programs. (BH)
Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Educational Demand, Educational History, Educational Objectives
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Crausaz, Roselyne – European Journal of Education, 1979
The structure of higher education in Switzerland is outlined and the roles of the universities, higher technical schools, and social schools are described. Also addressed are: research and higher education, the labor market, student characteristics, and the future outlook for Swiss higher education. (BH)
Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Finance, Educational History, Educational Policy
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Leitner, Erich – European Journal of Education, 1979
Austrian higher education is described with specific reference to the organization and study reforms that Austrian universities have undergone. The increasing number of Austrian students may require continuing reform of the higher education system and the future outlook is discussed. (BH)
Descriptors: Change Strategies, Educational Change, Educational Demand, Educational Finance
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Premfors, Rune I. T. – European Journal of Education, 1979
The impact of a shift in Swedish government from the Social Democratic Party to a conservative/liberal coalition in 1976 on higher education policy is examined. Characteristic features of the political processes and policy developments in Swedish higher education during this period are discussed. (BH)
Descriptors: Admission (School), Change Strategies, Educational Change, Educational History