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MOGUEROU, PHILIPPE – European Journal of Education, 2005
In this article, we discuss the recent evolutions of science and engineering doctoral and postdoctoral education in Europe. Indeed, Ph.Ds are crucial to the conduct of research and innovation in the national innovation systems, as they provide a large amount of input into creating the competitive advantage, notably through basic research. First,…
Descriptors: Postdoctoral Education, Doctoral Programs, Competition, Natural Sciences
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Hufner, Klaus – European Journal of Education, 1987
The West German debate over state-controlled higher education planning versus market-oriented competition is examined in the context of recent West German educational history, actions taken by the federal government and science council, institutional reactions, and research on the use of performance indicators. (MSE)
Descriptors: Accountability, Comparative Analysis, Competition, Educational Demand