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Graham, Steve; Hebert, Michael; Harris, Karen R. – Elementary School Journal, 2015
To determine whether formative writing assessments that are directly tied to everyday classroom teaching and learning enhance students' writing performance, we conducted a meta-analysis of true and quasi-experiments conducted with students in grades 1 to 8. We found that feedback to students about writing from adults, peers, self, and computers…
Descriptors: Formative Evaluation, Meta Analysis, Writing Tests, Quasiexperimental Design
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Gottfried, Michael A. – Elementary School Journal, 2012
This study contributes a novel perspective on grade retention by empirically examining how classroom composition relates to the standardized-testing performance of grade-retained students in their post-retained years. This evaluation employed a sample of entire cohorts of urban elementary school children in the Philadelphia School District over 6…
Descriptors: Grade Repetition, School Holding Power, Evidence, Testing