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Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jin, Kuan-Yu – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2015
Many scales contain both positively and negatively worded items. Reverse recoding of negatively worded items might not be enough for them to function as positively worded items do. In this study, we commented on the drawbacks of existing approaches to wording effect in mixed-format scales and used bi-factor item response theory (IRT) models to…
Descriptors: Item Response Theory, Test Format, Language Usage, Test Items