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Likourezos, Vicki; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Based on cognitive load theory, this paper reports on two experiments investigating the variability effect that occurs when learners' exposure to highly variable tasks results in superior test performance. It was hypothesised that the effect was more likely to occur using high rather than low levels of guidance and testing more knowledgeable than…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Testing, Knowledge Level
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Ngu, Bing Hiong; Phan, Huy P.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Chung, Siu Fung – Educational Psychology Review, 2018
Between two popular teaching methods (i.e., balance method vs. inverse method) for equation solving, the main difference occurs at the operational line (e.g., +2 on both sides vs. -2 becomes +2), whereby it alters the state of the equation and yet maintains its equality. Element interactivity occurs on both sides of the equation in the balance…
Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Mathematics Instruction, Equations (Mathematics), Interaction
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Ziegler, Esther; Edelsbrunner, Peter A.; Stern, Elsbeth – Educational Psychology Review, 2018
Knowledge representations that result from practicing problem solving can be expected to differ from knowledge representations that emerge from explicit verbalizing of principles and rules. We examined the degree to which the two types of learning improve problem-solving knowledge and verbal explanation knowledge in classroom instruction. We…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Grade 6, Teaching Methods, Algebra
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Bisra, Kiran; Liu, Qing; Nesbit, John C.; Salimi, Farimah; Winne, Philip H. – Educational Psychology Review, 2018
Self-explanation is a process by which learners generate inferences about causal connections or conceptual relationships. A meta-analysis was conducted on research that investigated learning outcomes for participants who received self-explanation prompts while studying or solving problems. Our systematic search of relevant bibliographic databases…
Descriptors: Learning Strategies, Cognitive Processes, Inferences, Prompting
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Richland, Lindsey E.; Begolli, Kreshnik Nasi; Simms, Nina; Frausel, Rebecca R.; Lyons, Emily A. – Educational Psychology Review, 2017
Mathematical discussions in which students compare alternative solutions to a problem can be powerful modes for students to engage and refine their misconceptions into conceptual understanding, as well as to develop understanding of the mathematics underlying common algorithms. At the same time, these discussions are challenging to lead…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Problem Solving, Literature Reviews, Mathematical Logic
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Phan, Huy P.; Ngu, Bing H.; Yeung, Alexander S. – Educational Psychology Review, 2017
We recently developed the "Framework of Achievement Bests" to explain the importance of effective functioning, personal growth, and enrichment of well-being experiences. This framework postulates a concept known as "optimal achievement best," which stipulates the idea that individuals may, in general, strive to achieve personal…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Instructional Design, Mathematics Instruction, Student Motivation
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Loibl, Katharina; Roll, Ido; Rummel, Nikol – Educational Psychology Review, 2017
Recently, there has been a growing interest in learning approaches that combine two phases: an initial problem-solving phase followed by an instruction phase (PS-I). Two often cited examples of instructional approaches following the PS-I scheme include Productive Failure and Invention. Despite the growing interest in PS-I approaches, to the best…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Teaching Methods, Program Design, Program Effectiveness
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Reed, Stephen K. – Educational Psychology Review, 2016
In his 1973 article "The Structure of ill structured problems", Herbert Simon proposed that solving ill-structured problems could be modeled within the same information-processing framework developed for solving well-structured problems. This claim is reexamined within the context of over 40 years of subsequent research and theoretical…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Puzzles, Teaching Methods, Cognitive Processes
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Silvia, Paul J. – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
This article reviews the history of thought on how intelligence and creativity, two individual differences important to teaching and learning, are connected. For decades, intelligence and creativity have been seen as essentially unrelated abilities. Recently, however, new theories, assessment methods, and statistical tools have caused a shift in…
Descriptors: Intelligence, Creativity, Correlation, Problem Solving
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Richey, J. Elizabeth; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J. – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
Robust knowledge serves as a common instructional target in academic settings. Past research identifying characteristics of experts' knowledge across many domains can help clarify the features of robust knowledge as well as ways of assessing it. We review the expertise literature and identify three key features of robust knowledge (deep,…
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Teaching Methods, Knowledge Level, Expertise
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Leahy, Wayne; Hanham, José; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
The testing effect occurs when learners who are tested rather than relearning material perform better on a final test than those who relearn. Based on cognitive load theory, it was predicted that the testing effect may not be obtained when the material being learned is high in element interactivity. Three experiments investigated conditions of the…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Testing, Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level
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van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L. – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n?=?120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of "isomorphic" problem solving or "example recall" on final test performance, which consisted of isomorphic problem…
Descriptors: Testing, Problem Solving, Performance, Comparative Analysis
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Agostinho, Shirley; Tindall-Ford, Sharon; Ginns, Paul; Howard, Steven J.; Leahy, Wayne; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
Gesturally controlled information and communication technologies, such as tablet devices, are becoming increasingly popular tools for teaching and learning. Based on the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and embodied cognition, this study investigated the impact of explicit instructions to trace out elements of tablet-based worked examples…
Descriptors: Handheld Devices, Educational Technology, Problem Solving, Mathematics Instruction
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Belland, Brian R. – Educational Psychology Review, 2011
Problem solving is an important skill in the knowledge economy. Research indicates that the development of problem solving skills works better in the context of instructional approaches centered on real-world problems. But students need scaffolding to be successful in such instruction. In this paper I present a conceptual framework for…
Descriptors: World Problems, Problem Solving, Scaffolding (Teaching Technique), Models
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Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing – Educational Psychology Review, 2011
Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…
Descriptors: Socialization, Psychological Studies, Cultural Differences, Memorization
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