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Sepp, Stoo; Howard, Steven J.; Tindall-Ford, Sharon; Agostinho, Shirley; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Cognitive load theory (CLT) applies what is known about human cognitive architecture to the study of learning and instruction, to generate insights into the characteristics and conditions of effective instruction and learning. Recent developments in CLT suggest that the human motor system plays an important role in cognition and learning; however,…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Psychomotor Skills, Short Term Memory
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Sweller, John; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Cognitive load theory was introduced in the 1980s as an instructional design theory based on several uncontroversial aspects of human cognitive architecture. Our knowledge of many of the characteristics of working memory, long-term memory and the relations between them had been well-established for many decades prior to the introduction of the…
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, Cognitive Processes, Instructional Design, Short Term Memory
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Castro-Alonso, Juan C.; Wong, Mona; Adesope, Olusola O.; Ayres, Paul; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Studies comparing the instructional effectiveness of dynamic versus static visualizations have produced mixed results. In this work, we investigated whether gender imbalance in the participant samples of these studies may have contributed to the mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized experiments in which groups of students…
Descriptors: Visualization, Research Methodology, Motion, Biology
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Chen, Ouhao; Castro-Alonso, Juan C.; Paas, Fred; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2018
Depletion of limited working memory resources may occur following extensive mental effort resulting in decreased performance compared to conditions requiring less extensive mental effort. This "depletion effect" can be incorporated into cognitive load theory that is concerned with using the properties of human cognitive architecture,…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Short Term Memory, Elementary School Students
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Toumpaniari, Konstantina; Loyens, Sofie; Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
Research has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the use of more subtle motor activities, such as task-relevant…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Second Language Learning, Vocabulary Development, Teaching Methods
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Agostinho, Shirley; Tindall-Ford, Sharon; Ginns, Paul; Howard, Steven J.; Leahy, Wayne; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
Gesturally controlled information and communication technologies, such as tablet devices, are becoming increasingly popular tools for teaching and learning. Based on the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and embodied cognition, this study investigated the impact of explicit instructions to trace out elements of tablet-based worked examples…
Descriptors: Handheld Devices, Educational Technology, Problem Solving, Mathematics Instruction
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Ruiter, Margina; Loyens, Sofie; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
It was investigated whether task-related body movements yield beneficial effects on children's learning of two-digit numbers and whether these learning effects are affected by mirror-based self-observation of those movements. Participants were 118 first-graders, who were randomly assigned to two movement conditions and two non-movement control…
Descriptors: Human Body, Motion, Teaching Methods, Numbers
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Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Okely, Anthony D.; Chandler, Paul; Cliff, Dylan P.; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language…
Descriptors: Physical Activities, Exercise, Nonverbal Communication, Teaching Methods
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Choi, Hwan-Hee; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2014
Although the theoretical framework of cognitive load theory has acknowledged a role for the learning environment, the specific characteristics of the physical learning environment that could affect cognitive load have never been considered, neither theoretically nor empirically. In this article, we argue that the physical learning environment, and…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Educational Environment, Instructional Effectiveness
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Paas, Fred; Ayres, Paul – Educational Psychology Review, 2014
According to cognitive load theory (CLT), the limitations of working memory (WM) in the learning of new tasks together with its ability to cooperate with an unlimited long-term memory (LTM) for familiar tasks enable human beings to deal effectively with complex problems and acquire highly complex knowledge and skills. With regard to WM, CLT has…
Descriptors: Cognitive Ability, Concept Formation, Memory, Instructional Design
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Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2014
Recent literature on learning with instructional manipulatives seems to call for a moderate view on the effects of perceptual and interactive richness of instructional manipulatives on learning. This "moderate view" holds that manipulatives' perceptual and interactive richness may compromise learning in two ways: (1) by imposing a…
Descriptors: Manipulative Materials, Learning, Perception, Interaction
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Paas, Fred; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2012
Cognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ameliorated by changes in long-term memory associated with…
Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Educational Psychology, Memory, Long Term Memory
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Kalyuga, Slava; Rikers, Remy; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2012
There have been several rather counterintuitive phenomena observed in different fields of research that compared the performance of experts and novices. For example, studies of medical expertise demonstrated that less experienced medical students may in some situations outperform seasoned medical practitioners on recall of specific cases. Studies…
Descriptors: Expertise, Medical Students, Models, Program Effectiveness
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Kalyuga, Slava; Renkl, Alexander; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2010
The development of flexible, transferable problem-solving skills is an important aim of contemporary educational systems. Since processing limitations of our mind represent a major factor influencing any meaningful learning, the acquisition of flexible problem-solving skills needs to be based on known characteristics of our cognitive architecture…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Cognitive Processes, Educational Theories, Models
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Janssen, Jeroen; Kirschner, Femke; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2010
Traditional research on collaborative learning employs a "black box" approach that makes it difficult to gain a deeper understanding of the differential effects of collaborative learning. To make the black box transparent, researchers have studied the process of collaboration, in order to establish which interaction features are likely to make…
Descriptors: Cooperative Learning, Learning Processes, Educational Research, Educational Theories
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