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Khezri, Nashmin; Rezaei, Mehdi; Aram, Mozafarl – Education and Urban Society, 2020
Formal education in Iran, especially higher education, has been a means to smoothen the road to social mobility, provide good jobs, and boost people's earnings. Now, being a university graduate and remaining unemployed is regarded as a challenge. In addition, governments consider this new unemployment a threat to their legitimacy. It seems that…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Gender Differences, Content Analysis, Social Mobility
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Mallett, Christopher A. – Education and Urban Society, 2017
This conceptual article synthesizes the empirical research on punitive environmental norms of schools and the disproportionate effects on certain child and adolescent groups, particularly within urban schools. This involvement has come to be known as the school-to-prison pipeline. The young people affected by harsh school discipline protocols and…
Descriptors: Disproportionate Representation, Children, Adolescents, At Risk Persons
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Frankenberg, Erica – Education and Urban Society, 2013
Inaction to address housing segregation in metropolitan areas has resulted in persistently high levels of residential segregation. As the Supreme Court has recently limited school districts' voluntary integration efforts, this article considers the role of residential segregation in maintaining racially isolated schools, namely what is known about…
Descriptors: School Segregation, Neighborhood Integration, Residential Patterns, Metropolitan Areas
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Hunter, Richard C.; Donahoo, Saran – Education and Urban Society, 2005
When confronted with the problems of urban school districts, such as an ever-increasing achievement gap, the underfunding of school districts, increased shortages of qualified teachers, greater emphasis on accountability, and the loss of public confidence, African American superintendents have considerable difficulty leading their school…
Descriptors: Superintendents, School Districts, Racial Composition, Job Performance