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Tõeväli, Paula-Karoliina; Kikas, Eve – Early Child Development and Care, 2016
The present longitudinal study examined the reciprocal relationships between teachers' causal attributions and children's math performance and task persistence. In total, 760 elementary school children and their teachers participated in this study. The children were tested in math twice, at the end of the second and third grades. At both time…
Descriptors: Longitudinal Studies, Correlation, Attribution Theory, Mathematics Achievement
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Kikas, Eve; Mägi, Katrin – Early Child Development and Care, 2015
This study examined transactional development of mothers' beliefs (self-efficacy, success attributions of a child's success to maternal effort) and children's academic skills. Six hundred sixty-eight children and their mothers were evaluated twice: at the beginning of the first grade and at the end of the third grade. Mothers' beliefs were…
Descriptors: Mothers, Self Efficacy, Success, Child Rearing
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Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Niilo, Airi – Early Child Development and Care, 2011
Questionnaires assessing mothers' involvement in children's education and their trust in teachers were developed for the usage in Estonian kindergartens and elementary schools. The scales were adapted based on the questionnaires by Fantuzzo and colleagues (parental involvement) and Adams and Christenson (trust). Mothers of 454 kindergarten…
Descriptors: Trust (Psychology), Mothers, Parent Participation, Parent School Relationship