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Jones, Julie P.; Tiller, Margaret – Dimensions of Early Childhood, 2017
Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA) instruction is a process for teaching and learning mathematical concepts. Starting with manipulation of concrete materials (counters, beans, Unifix cubes), the process moves students to the representational level (tallies, dots, stamps), and peaks at the abstract level, at which numbers and symbols are…
Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Mathematics Instruction, Mathematical Concepts, Manipulative Materials