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Goldstein, Thalia R.; Lerner, Matthew D. – Developmental Science, 2018
Pretense is a naturally occurring, apparently universal activity for typically developing children. Yet its function and effects remain unclear. One theorized possibility is that pretense activities, such as dramatic pretend play games, are a possible causal path to improve children's emotional development. Social and emotional skills,…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Drama, Play, Games
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Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P. – Developmental Science, 2018
Executive function (EF) is a key cognitive process that emerges in early childhood and facilitates children's ability to control their own behavior. Individual differences in EF skills early in life are predictive of quality-of-life outcomes 30 years later (Moffitt et al., 2011). What changes in the brain give rise to this critical cognitive…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Cognitive Processes, Individual Differences, Cognitive Ability
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Centanni, Tracy M.; Norton, Elizabeth S.; Park, Anne; Beach, Sara D.; Halverson, Kelly; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E. – Developmental Science, 2018
A functional region of left fusiform gyrus termed "the visual word form area" (VWFA) develops during reading acquisition to respond more strongly to printed words than to other visual stimuli. Here, we examined responses to letters among 5- and 6-year-old early kindergarten children (N = 48) with little or no school-based reading…
Descriptors: Young Children, Kindergarten, Reading Skills, Diagnostic Tests
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Fort, Mathilde; Lammertink, Imme; Peperkamp, Sharon; Guevara-Rukoz, Adriana; Fikkert, Paula; Tsuji, Sho – Developmental Science, 2018
Adults and toddlers systematically associate pseudowords such as "bouba" and "kiki" with round and spiky shapes, respectively, a sound symbolic phenomenon known as the "bouba-kiki effect." To date, whether this sound symbolic effect is a property of the infant brain present at birth or is a learned aspect of language…
Descriptors: Acoustics, Infants, Brain, Language Acquisition
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Bathelt, Joe; Gathercole, Susan E.; Butterfield, Sally; Astle, Duncan E. – Developmental Science, 2018
Literacy and numeracy are important skills that are typically learned during childhood, a time that coincides with considerable shifts in large-scale brain organization. However, most studies emphasize focal brain contributions to literacy and numeracy development by employing case-control designs and voxel-by-voxel statistical comparisons. This…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Academic Achievement, Learning Problems, Literacy
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O'Connor, Patrick A.; Morsanyi, Kinga; McCormack, Teresa – Developmental Science, 2018
Ordinality is a fundamental feature of numbers and recent studies have highlighted the role that number ordering abilities play in mathematical development (e.g., Lyons et al. 2014), as well as mature mathematical performance (e.g., Lyons & Beilock, 2011). The current study tested the novel hypothesis that non-numerical ordering ability, as…
Descriptors: Numeracy, Mathematics Skills, Grade 1, Grade 2
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Su, Mengmeng; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Zhao, Jingjing; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Gaolang; McBride, Catherine; Ramus, Franck; Shu, Hua – Developmental Science, 2018
The acquisition of language involves the functional specialization of several cortical regions. Connectivity between these brain regions may also change with the development of language. Various studies have demonstrated that the arcuate fasciculus was essential for language function. Vocabulary learning is one of the most important skills in…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Language Acquisition, Vocabulary Development, Children
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Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Asaridou, Salomi S.; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Holt, Anna E.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Small, Steven L. – Developmental Science, 2018
Gesture is an integral part of children's communicative repertoire. However, little is known about the neurobiology of speech and gesture integration in the developing brain. We investigated how 8- to 10-year-old children processed gesture that was essential to understanding a set of narratives. We asked whether the functional neuroanatomy of…
Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Neurology, Biology, Brain Hemisphere Functions
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Sasanguie, Delphine; Vos, Helene – Developmental Science, 2018
Digit comparison is strongly related to individual differences in children's arithmetic ability. Why this is the case, however, remains unclear to date. Therefore, we investigated the relative contribution of three possible cognitive mechanisms in first and second graders' digit comparison performance: digit identification, digit--number word…
Descriptors: Elementary School Mathematics, Elementary School Students, Grade 1, Grade 2
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Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Woods, Elizabeth A.; Chiarello, Christine; Hernandez, Arturo E. – Developmental Science, 2018
The goal of the present study was to examine differences in cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between bilingual children who are highly proficient in two languages (i.e., English and Spanish) and bilingual children who are mainly proficient in one of the languages (i.e., Spanish). All children (N = 49) learned…
Descriptors: Anatomy, Neurology, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Bilingualism
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Davis, Katie; Margolis, Amy E.; Thomas, Lauren; Huo, Zhiyong; Marsh, Rachel – Developmental Science, 2018
Pediatric reading disorder (RD) is associated with an increased risk of anxiety symptoms, yet understudied are the neurobiological factors that might underlie anxiety in children with RD. Given the role of the amygdala in anxiety, we assessed resting state functional connectivity of amygdalar subregions in children with RD to identify functional…
Descriptors: Anxiety, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Risk, Symptoms (Individual Disorders)
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Wakefield, Elizabeth M.; Hall, Casey; James, Karin H.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan – Developmental Science, 2018
Verb learning is difficult for children (Gentner, [Gentner, D., 1982]), partially because children have a bias to associate a novel verb not only with the action it represents, but also with the object on which it is learned (Kersten & Smith, [Kersten, A.W., 2002]). Here we investigate how well 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 48) generalize…
Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Verbs, Language Acquisition, Young Children
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Lai, Maxine; Zax, Alexandra; Barth, Hilary – Developmental Science, 2018
Learning the meanings of Arabic numerals involves mapping the number symbols to mental representations of their corresponding, approximate numerical quantities. It is often assumed that performance on numerical tasks, such as number line estimation (NLE), is primarily driven by translating from a presented numeral to a mental representation of its…
Descriptors: Numbers, Computation, Children, Adults
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Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E.; Elvin, Jaydene; Traynor, Nicole M. – Developmental Science, 2018
Fifteen-month-olds have difficulty detecting differences between novel words differing in a single vowel. Previous work showed that Australian English (AusE) infants habituated to the word-object pair DEET detected an auditory switch to DIT and DOOT in Canadian English (CanE) but not in their native AusE (Escudero et al., 2014). The authors…
Descriptors: Infants, Language Variation, Phonetics, Vowels
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Foti, Francesca; Menghini, Deny; Alfieri, Paolo; Costanzo, Floriana; Mandolesi, Laura; Petrosini, Laura; Vicari, Stefano – Developmental Science, 2018
New skills may be learned by active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or by observation of others' experience (learning by observation). In general, learning by observation reduces the time and the attempts needed to learn complex actions and behaviors. The present research aimed to compare learning by observation and…
Descriptors: Down Syndrome, Genetic Disorders, Psychomotor Skills, Visual Perception
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