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Luo, Yuyan; Johnson, Susan C. – Developmental Science, 2009
The present research examined whether infants as young as 6 months of age would consider what objects a human agent could perceive when interpreting her actions on the objects. In two experiments, the infants took the agent's actions of repeatedly reaching for and grasping one of two possible objects as suggesting her preference for that object…
Descriptors: Infants, Experiments, Visual Perception, Action Research
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Nurmsoo, Erika; Robinson, Elizabeth J. – Developmental Science, 2009
In three experiments (N = 123; 148; 28), children observed a video in which two speakers offered alternative labels for unfamiliar objects. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-olds endorsed the label given by a speaker who had previously labeled familiar objects accurately, rather than that given by a speaker with a history of inaccurate labeling, even…
Descriptors: Children, Video Technology, Films, Young Children
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Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B. – Developmental Science, 2009
Two experiments examined developmental changes in children's visual recognition of common objects during the period of 18 to 24 months. Experiment 1 examined children's ability to recognize common category instances that presented three different kinds of information: (1) richly detailed and prototypical instances that presented both local and…
Descriptors: Infants, Geometric Concepts, Visual Stimuli, Age Differences
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LoBue, Vanessa – Developmental Science, 2009
Threatening facial expressions can signal the approach of someone or something potentially dangerous. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for angry faces, visually detecting their presence more quickly than happy or neutral faces. Two new findings are reported here. First, evidence is presented that young children…
Descriptors: Visual Stimuli, Attention, Young Children, Nonverbal Communication
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Joseph, Robert M.; Keehn, Brandon; Connolly, Christine; Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S. – Developmental Science, 2009
This study investigated the possibility that enhanced memory for rejected distractor locations underlies the superior visual search skills exhibited by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We compared the performance of 21 children with ASD and 21 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children in a standard static search task…
Descriptors: Reaction Time, Autism, Memory, Severity (of Disability)
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Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren – Developmental Science, 2008
Mounting clinical evidence suggests that abnormalities of social engagement in children with autism are present even during infancy. However, direct experimental documentation of these abnormalities is still limited. In this case report of a 15-month-old infant with autism, we measured visual fixation patterns to both naturalistic and ambiguous…
Descriptors: Visual Stimuli, Autism, Infants, Social Environment
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Peltola, Mikko J.; Leppanen, Jukka M.; Palokangas, Tiina; Hietanen, Jari K. – Developmental Science, 2008
The present study investigated whether facial expressions modulate visual attention in 7-month-old infants. First, infants' looking duration to individually presented fearful, happy, and novel facial expressions was compared to looking duration to a control stimulus (scrambled face). The face with a novel expression was included to examine the…
Descriptors: Visual Stimuli, Attention, Infants, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension)
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Quinn, Paul C.; Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M. – Developmental Science, 2008
Human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. We examined whether this preference is human-specific. Three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (Experiments 1 and 3). The preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not…
Descriptors: Infants, Recognition (Psychology), Visual Perception, Visual Stimuli
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Balcomb, Frances K.; Gerken, LouAnn – Developmental Science, 2008
Many models of learning rely on accessing internal knowledge states. Yet, although infants and young children are recognized to be proficient learners, the ability to act on metacognitive information is not thought to develop until early school years. In the experiments reported here, 3.5-year-olds demonstrated memory-monitoring skills by…
Descriptors: Tests, Recognition (Psychology), Memorization, Memory
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Chow, Virginia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Lewis, Jessica – Developmental Science, 2008
In two experiments, we examined whether 14-month-olds understand the subjective nature of gaze. In the first experiment, infants first observed an experimenter express happiness as she looked inside a container that either contained a toy (reliable looker condition) or was empty (unreliable looker condition). Then, infants had to follow the same…
Descriptors: Toddlers, Infants, Eye Movements, Visual Stimuli
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Leighty, Katherine A.; Menzel, Charles R.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M. – Developmental Science, 2008
Object recognition research is typically conducted using 2D stimuli in lieu of 3D objects. This study investigated the amount and complexity of knowledge gained from 2D stimuli in adult chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and young children (aged 3 and 4 years) using a titrated series of cross-dimensional search tasks. Results indicate that 3-year-old…
Descriptors: Visual Stimuli, Young Children, Animals, Cognitive Processes
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de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M. – Developmental Science, 2008
How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Prediction, Social Influences, Infants
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Dilks, Daniel D.; Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara – Developmental Science, 2008
Evidence suggests that visual processing is divided into the dorsal ("how") and ventral ("what") streams. We examined the normal development of these streams and their breakdown under neurological deficit by comparing performance of normally developing children and Williams syndrome individuals on two tasks: a visually guided action ("how") task,…
Descriptors: Vision, Cognitive Processes, Child Development, Developmental Stages
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Nardini, Marko; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver; Burgess, Neil – Developmental Science, 2008
Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder associated with severe visuocognitive impairment. Individuals with WS also report difficulties with everyday wayfinding. To study the development of body-, environment-, and object-based spatial frames of reference in WS, we tested 45 children and adults with WS on a search task in which the participant…
Descriptors: Genetic Disorders, Developmental Stages, Child Development, Spatial Ability
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Cheries, Erik W.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; Wynn, Karen; Scholl, Brian J. – Developmental Science, 2008
A critical challenge for visual perception is to represent objects as the same persisting individuals over time and motion. Across several areas of cognitive science, researchers have identified cohesion as among the most important theoretical principles of object persistence: An object must maintain a single bounded contour over time. Drawing…
Descriptors: Object Permanence, Persistence, Infants, Visual Perception
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