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Plebanek, Daniel J.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M. – Developmental Science, 2019
Selective attention is fundamental for learning across many situations, yet it exhibits protracted development, with young children often failing to filter out distractors. In this research, we examine links between selective attention and working memory (WM) capacity across development. One possibility is that WM is resource-limited, with…
Descriptors: Attention, Young Children, Short Term Memory, Child Development
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Wu, Jiamin; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H. – Developmental Science, 2019
We examined the developmental differences in motor control and learning of a two-segment movement. One hundred and five participants (53 female) were divided into three age groups (7-8 years, 9-10 years and 19-27 years). They performed a two-segment movement task in four conditions (full vision, fully disturbed vision, disturbed vision in the…
Descriptors: Motor Development, Elementary School Students, Task Analysis, Accuracy
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Grzyb, Beata J.; Nagai, Yukie; Asada, Minoru; Cattani, Allegra; Floccia, Caroline; Cangelosi, Angelo – Developmental Science, 2019
Young children sometimes attempt an action on an object, which is inappropriate because of the object size--they make scale errors. Existing theories suggest that scale errors may result from immaturities in children's action planning system, which might be overpowered by increased complexity of object representations or developing teleofunctional…
Descriptors: Error Patterns, Young Children, Cognitive Processes, Semantics
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Lin, Dan; Sun, Huilin; McBride, Catherine – Developmental Science, 2019
In this longitudinal study, we assessed 88 Hong Kong Chinese typically developing kindergarteners' Chinese character reading accuracy four times with 6-month intervals over 1.5 years with the first testing point in the fall of the second year of kindergarten (K2), during which morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographic…
Descriptors: Morphology (Languages), Kindergarten, Orthographic Symbols, Written Language
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Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Vellekoop, Perijne; Maris, Helen; Halliday, Drew; Drammeh, Saikou; Sanyang, Lamin; Darboe, Momodou K.; Elwell, Clare; Moore, Sophie E.; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah – Developmental Science, 2019
Infants in low-resource settings are at heightened risk for compromised cognitive development due to a multitude of environmental insults in their surroundings. However, the onset of adverse outcomes and trajectory of cognitive development in these settings is not well understood. The aims of the present study were to adapt the Mullen Scales of…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Cognitive Ability, Young Children, Motor Development
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Slone, Lauren K.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen – Developmental Science, 2019
Object names are a major component of early vocabularies and learning object names depends on being able to visually recognize objects in the world. However, the fundamental visual challenge of the moment-to-moment variations in object appearances that learners must resolve has received little attention in word learning research. Here we provide…
Descriptors: Vocabulary Development, Infants, Object Permanence, Recognition (Psychology)
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Jones, Pete R.; Dekker, Tessa M. – Developmental Science, 2018
The mature visual system condenses complex scenes into simple summary statistics (e.g., average size, location, orientation, etc.). However, children, often perform poorly on perceptual averaging tasks. Children's difficulties are typically thought to represent the suboptimal implementation of an adult-like strategy. This paper examines another…
Descriptors: Statistics, Task Analysis, Children, Correlation
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Park, Joonkoo; van den Berg, Berry; Chiang, Crystal; Woldorff, Marty G.; Brannon, Elizabeth M. – Developmental Science, 2018
Adult neuroimaging studies have demonstrated dissociable neural activation patterns in the visual cortex in response to letters (Latin alphabet) and numbers (Arabic numerals), which suggest a strong experiential influence of reading and mathematics on the human visual system. Here, developmental trajectories in the event-related potential (ERP)…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Neurological Organization, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Alphabets
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Raviv, Limor; Arnon, Inbal – Developmental Science, 2018
Infants, children and adults are capable of extracting recurring patterns from their environment through statistical learning (SL), an implicit learning mechanism that is considered to have an important role in language acquisition. Research over the past 20 years has shown that SL is present from very early infancy and found in a variety of tasks…
Descriptors: Child Development, Age Differences, Learning Processes, Children
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Twomey, Katherine E.; Westermann, Gert – Developmental Science, 2018
Infants are curious learners who drive their own cognitive development by imposing structure on their learning environment as they explore. Understanding the mechanisms by which infants structure their own learning is therefore critical to our understanding of development. Here we propose an explicit mechanism for intrinsically motivated…
Descriptors: Infants, Infant Behavior, Child Development, Learning Processes
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Tummeltshammer, Kristen; Amso, Dima – Developmental Science, 2018
The visual context in which an object or face resides can provide useful top-down information for guiding attention orienting, object recognition, and visual search. Although infants have demonstrated sensitivity to covariation in spatial arrays, it is presently unclear whether they can use rapidly acquired contextual knowledge to guide attention…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Attention, Infants, Eye Movements
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Centanni, Tracy M.; Norton, Elizabeth S.; Park, Anne; Beach, Sara D.; Halverson, Kelly; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E. – Developmental Science, 2018
A functional region of left fusiform gyrus termed "the visual word form area" (VWFA) develops during reading acquisition to respond more strongly to printed words than to other visual stimuli. Here, we examined responses to letters among 5- and 6-year-old early kindergarten children (N = 48) with little or no school-based reading…
Descriptors: Young Children, Kindergarten, Reading Skills, Diagnostic Tests
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Foti, Francesca; Menghini, Deny; Alfieri, Paolo; Costanzo, Floriana; Mandolesi, Laura; Petrosini, Laura; Vicari, Stefano – Developmental Science, 2018
New skills may be learned by active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or by observation of others' experience (learning by observation). In general, learning by observation reduces the time and the attempts needed to learn complex actions and behaviors. The present research aimed to compare learning by observation and…
Descriptors: Down Syndrome, Genetic Disorders, Psychomotor Skills, Visual Perception
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Cowan, Nelson; Li, Yu; Glass, Bret A.; Scott Saults, J. – Developmental Science, 2018
Presentation of two kinds of materials in working memory (visual and acoustic), with the requirement to attend to one or both modalities, poses an interesting case for working memory development because competing predictions can be formulated. In two experiments, we assessed such predictions with children 7-13 years old and adults. With…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Visual Perception, Auditory Perception, Acoustics
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Wakefield, Elizabeth; Novack, Miriam A.; Congdon, Eliza L.; Franconeri, Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan – Developmental Science, 2018
Teaching a new concept through gestures--hand movements that accompany speech--facilitates learning above-and-beyond instruction through speech alone (e.g., Singer & Goldin-Meadow, 2005). However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still under investigation. Here, we use eye tracking to explore one often proposed…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Attention, Teaching Methods, Nonverbal Communication
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