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Mercure, Evelyne; Kushnerenko, Elena; Goldberg, Laura; Bowden-Howl, Harriet; Coulson, Kimberley; Johnson, Mark H; MacSweeney, Mairéad – Developmental Science, 2019
Infants as young as 2 months can integrate audio and visual aspects of speech articulation. A shift of attention from the eyes towards the mouth of talking faces occurs around 6 months of age in monolingual infants. However, it is unknown whether this pattern of attention during audiovisual speech processing is influenced by speech and language…
Descriptors: Infants, Bilingualism, Auditory Stimuli, Visual Stimuli
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Yu, Chen; Suanda, Sumarga H.; Smith, Linda B. – Developmental Science, 2019
Vocabulary differences early in development are highly predictive of later language learning as well as achievement in school. Early word learning emerges in the context of tightly coupled social interactions between the early learner and a mature partner. In the present study, we develop and apply a novel paradigm--dual head-mounted eye…
Descriptors: Infants, Infant Behavior, Attention Control, Eye Movements
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Chang, Lucas M.; Deák, Gedeon O. – Developmental Science, 2019
Infant language learning depends on the distribution of co-occurrences "within" language--between words and other words--and "between" language content and events in the world. Yet infant-directed speech is not limited to words that refer to perceivable objects and actions. Rather, caregivers' utterances contain a range of…
Descriptors: Infants, Language Acquisition, Speech Communication, Play
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Birulés, Joan; Bosch, Laura; Brieke, Ricarda; Pons, Ferran; Lewkowicz, David J. – Developmental Science, 2019
Previous findings indicate that bilingual Catalan/Spanish-learning infants attend more to the highly salient audiovisual redundancy cues normally available in a talker's mouth than do monolingual infants. Presumably, greater attention to such cues renders the challenge of learning two languages easier. Spanish and Catalan are, however,…
Descriptors: Bilingualism, Attention, Human Body, Infants
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Comishen, Kyle J.; Bialystok, Ellen; Adler, Scott A. – Developmental Science, 2019
Bilingualism has been observed to influence cognitive processing across the lifespan but whether bilingual environments have an effect on selective attention and attention strategies in infancy remains an unresolved question. In Study 1, infants exposed to monolingual or bilingual environments participated in an eye-tracking cueing task in which…
Descriptors: Bilingualism, Infants, Monolingualism, Eye Movements
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Hernik, Mikolaj; Broesch, Tanya – Developmental Science, 2019
Gaze is considered a crucial component of early communication between an infant and her caregiver. When communicatively addressed, infants respond aptly to others' gaze by following its direction. However, experience with face-to-face contact varies across cultures, begging the question whether infants' competencies in receiving others'…
Descriptors: Infants, Eye Movements, Interpersonal Communication, Cultural Influences
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Zhang, Felicia; Jaffe-Dax, Sagi; Wilson, Robert C.; Emberson, Lauren L. – Developmental Science, 2019
Adults use both bottom-up sensory inputs and top-down signals to generate predictions about future sensory inputs. Infants have also been shown to make predictions with simple stimuli and recent work has suggested top-down processing is available early in infancy. However, it is unknown whether this indicates that top-down prediction is an ability…
Descriptors: Prediction, Infants, Adults, Eye Movements
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Pyykkö, Juha; Forssman, Linda; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Leppänen, Jukka M. – Developmental Science, 2019
Eye tracking research has shown that infants develop a repertoire of attentional capacities during the first year. The majority of studies examining the early development of attention comes from Western, high-resource countries. We examined visual attention in a heterogeneous sample of infants in rural Malawi (N = 312-376, depending on analysis).…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Infant Behavior, Attention, Rural Areas
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Slone, Lauren K.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen – Developmental Science, 2019
Object names are a major component of early vocabularies and learning object names depends on being able to visually recognize objects in the world. However, the fundamental visual challenge of the moment-to-moment variations in object appearances that learners must resolve has received little attention in word learning research. Here we provide…
Descriptors: Vocabulary Development, Infants, Object Permanence, Recognition (Psychology)
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Singh, Leher; Quinn, Paul C.; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Lee, Kang – Developmental Science, 2019
Bilingualism exerts early and pervasive effects on cognition, observable in infancy. Thus far, investigations of infant bilingual cognition have focused on sensitivity to visual memory, executive function, and linguistic sensitivity. Much less research has focused on how bilingualism impacts processing of social cues. The present study sought to…
Descriptors: Monolingualism, Bilingualism, Infants, Racial Bias
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Wegener, Signy; Wang, Hua-Chen; Lissa, Peter; Robidoux, Serje; Nation, Kate; Castles, Anne – Developmental Science, 2018
There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'),…
Descriptors: Child Language, Oral Language, Vocabulary, Reading Skills
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Morey, Candice C.; Mareva, Silvana; Lelonkiewicz, Jaroslaw R.; Chevalier, Nicolas – Developmental Science, 2018
The emergence of strategic verbal rehearsal at around 7 years of age is widely considered a major milestone in descriptions of the development of short-term memory across childhood. Likewise, rehearsal is believed by many to be a crucial factor in explaining why memory improves with age. This apparent qualitative shift in mnemonic processes has…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Mnemonics, Child Development, Qualitative Research
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Tummeltshammer, Kristen; Amso, Dima – Developmental Science, 2018
The visual context in which an object or face resides can provide useful top-down information for guiding attention orienting, object recognition, and visual search. Although infants have demonstrated sensitivity to covariation in spatial arrays, it is presently unclear whether they can use rapidly acquired contextual knowledge to guide attention…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Attention, Infants, Eye Movements
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Blythe, Hazel I.; Dickins, Jonathan H.; Kennedy, Colin R.; Liversedge, Simon P. – Developmental Science, 2018
There has been considerable variability within the literature concerning the extent to which deaf/hard of hearing individuals are able to process phonological codes during reading. Two experiments are reported in which participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences containing correctly spelled words (e.g., church),…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Deafness, Hearing Impairments, Cognitive Processes
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Stavans, Maayan; Baillargeon, Renée – Developmental Science, 2018
Two experiments examined whether 4-month-olds (n = 120) who were induced to assign two objects to different categories would then be able to take advantage of these contrastive categorical encodings to individuate and track the objects. In each experiment, infants first watched functional demonstrations of two tools, a masher and tongs (Experiment…
Descriptors: Infants, Eye Movements, Visual Stimuli, Task Analysis
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