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Showing 1 to 15 of 727 results Save | Export
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Machlin, Laura; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A. – Developmental Science, 2020
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater risk for symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One mechanism through which SES may confer risk for ADHD is by influencing brain structure. Alterations to cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume have been associated with low SES and with the presence of…
Descriptors: Socioeconomic Status, Socioeconomic Influences, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Brain
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Howard, Steven J.; Cook, Caylee J.; Everts, Lizl; Melhuish, Edward; Scerif, Gaia; Norris, Shane; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Draper, Catherine E. – Developmental Science, 2020
The widely and internationally replicated socioeconomic status (SES) gradient of executive function (EF) implies that intervention approaches may do well to extrapolate conditions and practices from contexts that generate better child outcomes (in this case, higher SES circumstances) and translate these to contexts with comparatively poorer…
Descriptors: Cross Cultural Studies, Executive Function, Socioeconomic Status, Intervention
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Blair, Clancy; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Willoughby, Michael T. – Developmental Science, 2020
A well-established literature demonstrates executive function (EF) deficits in obese children and adults relative to healthy weight comparisons. EF deficits in obesity are associated with overeating and impulsive consumption of high calorie foods leading to excess weight gain and to problems with metabolic regulation and low-grade inflammation…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Child Development, Body Composition, Obesity
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Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar – Developmental Science, 2020
The success of human culture depends on early emerging mechanisms of social learning, which include the ability to acquire opaque cultural knowledge through faithful imitation, as well as the ability to advance culture through flexible discovery of new means to goal attainment. This study explores whether this mixture of faithful imitation and…
Descriptors: Socialization, Imitation, Goal Orientation, Parent Attitudes
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Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca – Developmental Science, 2020
When we watch movies, we consider the characters' mental states in order to understand and predict the narrative. Recent work in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) uses movie-viewing paradigms to measure functional responses in brain regions recruited for such mental state reasoning (the theory of mind ["ToM"] network). Here,…
Descriptors: Theory of Mind, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Preschool Children, Child Development
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Vandermosten, Maaike; Correia, Joao; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol; Bonte, Milene – Developmental Science, 2020
There is an ongoing debate whether phonological deficits in dyslexics should be attributed to (a) less specified representations of speech sounds, like suggested by studies in young children with a familial risk for dyslexia, or (b) to an impaired access to these phonemic representations, as suggested by studies in adults with dyslexia. These…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Diagnostic Tests, Genetics, Dyslexia
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Kubota, Maki; Chevalier, Nicolas; Sorace, Antonella – Developmental Science, 2020
This longitudinal study investigates whether the development in executive control and bilingual experience predicts change in language control in bilingual children. Children were tested twice over the course of 1 year, using the language-switching paradigm and the Simon task. The participants were Japanese-English bilingual "returnee"…
Descriptors: Self Control, Executive Function, Bilingualism, Language Usage
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Gaither, Sarah E.; Fan, Samantha P.; Kinzler, Katherine D. – Developmental Science, 2020
Studies of children's developing social identification often focus on individual forms of identity. Yet, everyone has multiple potential identities. Here we investigated whether making children aware of their multifaceted identities--effectively seeing themselves from multiple angles--would promote their flexible thinking. In Experiment 1, 6- to…
Descriptors: Self Concept, Problem Solving, Children, Thinking Skills
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Donnellan, Ed; Bannard, Colin; McGillion, Michelle L.; Slocombe, Katie E.; Matthews, Danielle – Developmental Science, 2020
What aspects of infants' prelinguistic communication are most valuable for learning to speak, and why? We test whether early vocalizations and gestures drive the transition to word use because, in addition to indicating motoric readiness, they (a) are early instances of intentional communication and (b) elicit verbal responses from caregivers. In…
Descriptors: Infants, Expressive Language, Vocabulary Development, Child Development
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Nava, Elena; Föcker, Julia; Gori, Monica – Developmental Science, 2020
Combining information across different sensory modalities is of critical importance for the animal's survival and a core feature of human's everyday life. In adulthood, sensory information is often integrated in a statistically optimal fashion, so that the combined estimates of two or more senses are more reliable than the best single one. Several…
Descriptors: Sensory Integration, Preschool Children, Teaching Methods, Games
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Debnath, Ranjan; Tang, Alva; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A. – Developmental Science, 2020
Exposure to early psychosocial deprivation as a result of institutional care disrupts typical brain development. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is the first longitudinal study to investigate the neurodevelopment of institutionalized infants randomized to a foster care (FCG) intervention versus care as usual (CAUG). Here, we…
Descriptors: Foster Care, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Placement, Child Development
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Engarhos, Paraskevi; Shohoudi, Azadeh; Crossman, Angela; Talwar, Victoria – Developmental Science, 2020
The current study examined the influence of observing another's lie- or truth-telling -- and its consequences -- on children's own honesty about a transgression. Children (N = 224, 5-8 years of age) observed an experimenter (E) tell the truth or lie about a minor transgression in one of five conditions: (a) Truth-Positive Outcome -- E told the…
Descriptors: Ethics, Deception, Young Children, Child Behavior
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Mueller, Jutta L.; Friederici, Angela D.; Männel, Claudia – Developmental Science, 2019
Infants' ability to learn complex linguistic regularities from early on has been revealed by electrophysiological studies indicating that 3-month-olds, but not adults, can automatically detect non-adjacent dependencies between syllables. While different ERP responses in adults and infants suggest that both linguistic rule learning and its link to…
Descriptors: Linguistics, Auditory Discrimination, Preschool Children, Syllables
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Chernyak, Nadia; Harris, Paul L.; Cordes, Sara – Developmental Science, 2019
Recent work has documented that despite preschool-aged children's understanding of social norms surrounding sharing, they fail to share their resources equally in many contexts. Here we explored two hypotheses for this failure: an "insufficient motivation hypothesis" and an "insufficient cognitive resources hypothesis." With…
Descriptors: Moral Values, Preschool Education, Schemata (Cognition), Age Differences
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Arunachalam, Sudha; Dennis, Shaun – Developmental Science, 2019
Verbs are often uttered before the events they describe. By 2 years of age, toddlers can learn from such an encounter. Hearing a novel verb in transitive sentences (e.g. "The boy lorped the cat"), even with no visual referent present, they later map it to a causative meaning (e.g. "feed") (e.g. Yuan & Fisher, [Yuan, S.,…
Descriptors: Semantics, Verbs, Toddlers, Vocabulary Development
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