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D'Souza, Hana; Cowie, Dorothy; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Bremner, Andrew J. – Developmental Science, 2017
In executing purposeful actions, adults select sufficient and necessary limbs. But infants often move goal-irrelevant limbs, suggesting a developmental process of motor specialization. Two experiments with 9- and 12-month-olds revealed gradual decreases in extraneous movements in non-acting limbs during unimanual actions. In Experiment 1,…
Descriptors: Infants, Motor Reactions, Child Development, Individual Differences
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Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara – Developmental Science, 2017
Sleep plays an active role in memory consolidation. Because children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) experience significant problems with sleep and also with learning, we predicted that sleep-dependent memory consolidation would be impaired in these children when compared to typically developing (TD) children. This is the first…
Descriptors: Sleep, Memory, Children, Down Syndrome
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Thomas, Michael S. C.; Davis, Rachael; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Charman, Tony – Developmental Science, 2016
This article outlines the "over-pruning hypothesis" of autism. The hypothesis originates in a neurocomputational model of the regressive sub-type (Thomas, Knowland & Karmiloff-Smith, 2011a, 2011b). Here we develop a more general version of the over-pruning hypothesis to address heterogeneity in the timing of manifestation of ASD,…
Descriptors: Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Computer Simulation, Symptoms (Individual Disorders)
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Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael S. C. – Developmental Science, 2014
Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language…
Descriptors: Speech, Auditory Perception, Visual Perception, Children
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Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena – Developmental Science, 2013
Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…
Descriptors: Socioeconomic Status, Socioeconomic Influences, Infants, Child Development
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Van Herwegen, Jo; Ansari, Daniel; Xu, Fei; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette – Developmental Science, 2008
Previous studies have suggested that typically developing 6-month-old infants are able to discriminate between small and large numerosities. However, discrimination between small numerosities in young infants is only possible when variables continuous with number (e.g. area or circumference) are confounded. In contrast, large number discrimination…
Descriptors: Toddlers, Infants, Number Concepts, Numeracy
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Karmiloff-Smith, Annette – Developmental Science, 2007
It is becoming increasingly clear that little in development is predetermined or permanently fixed. Rather, gene expression is activity dependent, and epigenesis is probabilistic. So, the study of genetic disorders needs to change from the still widely held view that developmental disorders can be accounted for in terms of intact versus impaired…
Descriptors: Genetic Disorders, Genetics, Brain, Specialization
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Scerif, Gaia; Cornish, Kim; Wilding, John; Driver, Jon; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette – Developmental Science, 2004
Visual selective attention is the ability to attend to relevant visual information and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Little is known about its typical and atypical development in early childhood. Experiment 1 investigates typically developing toddlers' visual search for multiple targets on a touch-screen. Time to hit a target, distance between…
Descriptors: Age Differences, Toddlers, Cognitive Processes, Visual Perception