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Pagán, Ascensión; Nation, Kate – Cognitive Science, 2019
We examined whether variations in contextual diversity, spacing, and retrieval practice influenced how well adults learned new words from reading experience. Eye movements were recorded as adults read novel words embedded in sentences. In the learning phase, unfamiliar words were presented either in the same sentence repeated four times (same…
Descriptors: Reading Processes, Vocabulary Development, Context Effect, Adults
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Sakarias, Maria; Flecken, Monique – Cognitive Science, 2019
We study how people attend to and memorize endings of events that differ in the degree to which objects in them are affected by an action: "Resultative" events show objects that undergo a visually salient change in state during the course of the event (peeling a potato), and "non-resultative" events involve objects that undergo…
Descriptors: Memory, Grammar, Finno Ugric Languages, Indo European Languages
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Orrantia, Josetxu; Muñez, David; Matilla, Laura; Sanchez, Rosario; San Romualdo, Sara; Verschaffel, Lieven – Cognitive Science, 2019
A growing body of research has shown that symbolic number processing relates to individual differences in mathematics. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms of symbolic number processing are crucial--accessing underlying magnitude representation of symbols (i.e., symbol-magnitude associations), processing relative order of symbols (i.e.,…
Descriptors: Numeracy, Numbers, Symbols (Mathematics), Mathematics Instruction
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Sullivan, Jessica; Boucher, Juliana; Kiefer, Reina J.; Williams, Katherine; Barner, David – Cognitive Science, 2019
Word learning depends critically on the use of linguistic context to constrain the likely meanings of words. However, the mechanisms by which children infer word meaning from linguistic context are still poorly understood. In this study, we asked whether adults (n = 58) and 2- to 6-year-old children (n = 180) use discourse coherence relations…
Descriptors: Cues, Linguistic Theory, Discourse Analysis, Toddlers
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Mills, Candice M.; Sands, Kaitlin R.; Rowles, Sydney P.; Campbell, Ian L. – Cognitive Science, 2019
When someone encounters an explanation perceived as weak, this may lead to a feeling of deprivation or tension that can be resolved by engaging in additional learning. This study examined to what extent children respond to weak explanations by seeking additional learning opportunities. Seven- to ten-year-olds (N = 81) explored questions and…
Descriptors: Children, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Ability, Information Seeking
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Yazbec, Angele; Kaschak, Michael P.; Borovsky, Arielle – Cognitive Science, 2019
Children and adults use established global knowledge to generate real-time linguistic predictions, but less is known about how listeners generate predictions in circumstances that semantically conflict with long-standing event knowledge. We explore these issues in adults and 5- to 10-year-old children using an eye-tracked sentence comprehension…
Descriptors: Sentences, Language Processing, Prediction, Adults
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Ferrara, Casey; Napoli, Donna Jo – Cognitive Science, 2019
In sign languages, the task of communicating a shape involves drawing in the air with one moving hand (Method One) or two (Method Two). Since the movement path is iconic, method choice might be based on the shape. In the present studies we aimed to determine whether geometric properties motivate method choice. In a study of 17 deaf signers from…
Descriptors: Sign Language, Geometric Concepts, Cross Cultural Studies, American Sign Language
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Mason, Blake; Rau, Martina A.; Nowak, Robert – Cognitive Science, 2019
Visual representations are prevalent in STEM instruction. To benefit from visuals, students need representational competencies that enable them to see meaningful information. Most research has focused on explicit conceptual representational competencies, but implicit perceptual competencies might also allow students to efficiently see meaningful…
Descriptors: Visual Aids, STEM Education, Task Analysis, Competence
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Temperley, David – Cognitive Science, 2019
Main clause phenomena (MCPs) are syntactic constructions that occur predominantly or exclusively in main clauses. I propose a processing explanation for MCPs. Sentence processing is easiest at the beginning of the sentence (requiring less search); this follows naturally from widely held assumptions about sentence processing. Because of this, a…
Descriptors: Language Processing, Syntax, Sentence Structure, Phrase Structure
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Król, Michal; Król, Magdalena – Cognitive Science, 2019
Existing research shows that people can improve their decision skills by learning what experts paid attention to when faced with the same problem. However, in domains like financial education, effective instruction requires frequent, personalized feedback given at the point of decision, which makes it time-consuming for experts to provide and…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Feedback (Response), Decision Making, Bias
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Stevens, Jon S.; Roberts, Gareth – Cognitive Science, 2019
The acceptability of sentences in natural language is constrained not only grammaticality, but also by the relationship between what is being conveyed and such factors as context and the beliefs of interlocutors. In many languages the critical element in a sentence (its focus) must be given grammatical prominence. There are different accounts of…
Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Time, Difficulty Level, Information Theory
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Alviar, Camila; Dale, Rick; Galati, Alexia – Cognitive Science, 2019
Communication is a multimodal phenomenon. The cognitive mechanisms supporting it are still understudied. We explored a natural dataset of academic lectures to determine how communication modalities are used and coordinated during the presentation of complex information. Using automated and semi-automated techniques, we extracted and analyzed, from…
Descriptors: Public Speaking, Nonverbal Communication, Speech, Articulation (Speech)
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Vong, Wai Keen; Hendrickson, Andrew T.; Navarro, Danielle J.; Perfors, Amy – Cognitive Science, 2019
The curse of dimensionality, which has been widely studied in statistics and machine learning, occurs when additional features cause the size of the feature space to grow so quickly that learning classification rules becomes increasingly difficult. How do people overcome the curse of dimensionality when acquiring real-world categories that have…
Descriptors: Learning Processes, Classification, Models, Performance
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Johns, Brendan T.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.; Jones, Michael N. – Cognitive Science, 2019
Distributional models of semantics learn word meanings from contextual co-occurrence patterns across a large sample of natural language. Early models, such as LSA and HAL (Landauer & Dumais, 1997; Lund & Burgess, 1996), counted co-occurrence events; later models, such as BEAGLE (Jones & Mewhort, 2007), replaced counting co-occurrences…
Descriptors: Semantics, Learning Processes, Models, Prediction
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Mulak, Karen E.; Vlach, Haley A.; Escudero, Paola – Cognitive Science, 2019
Cross-situational word learning (XSWL) tasks present multiple words and candidate referents within a learning trial such that word-referent pairings can be inferred only across trials. Adults encode fine phonological detail when two words and candidate referents are presented in each learning trial (2 × 2 scenario; Escudero, Mulak, & Vlach,…
Descriptors: Phonology, Vocabulary Development, Cognitive Mapping, Accuracy
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