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Parnafes, Orit – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
This article presents a theoretical model of the process by which students construct and elaborate explanations of scientific phenomena using visual representations. The model describes progress in the underlying conceptual processes in students' explanations as a reorganization of fine-grained knowledge elements based on the Knowledge in Pieces…
Descriptors: Concept Formation, Astronomy, Intuition, Grade 5
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Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Control Groups, Organic Chemistry, Direct Instruction
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Lai, Yvonne; Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
In this article, we report two studies investigating what mathematicians value in a pedagogical proof. Study 1 is a qualitative study of how eight mathematicians revised two proofs that would be presented in a course for mathematics majors. These mathematicians thought that introductory and concluding sentences should be included in the proofs,…
Descriptors: Sentences, Mathematics Education, Qualitative Research, Mathematics Instruction
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Chazan, Daniel; Sela, Hagit; Herbst, Patricio – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
We illustrate a method, which is modeled on "breaching experiments," for studying tacit norms that govern classroom interaction around particular mathematical content. Specifically, this study explores norms that govern teachers' expectations for the doing of word problems in school algebra. Teacher study groups discussed representations of…
Descriptors: Interaction, Norms, Word Problems (Mathematics), Algebra
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van Boxtel, Carla; van Drie, Jannet – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
An important goal of history education is the development of a chronological frame of reference that can be used to interpret and date historical images and documents. Despite the importance of this contextualization goal, little is known about the knowledge and strategies that allow students to situate information historically. Two studies were…
Descriptors: Cartoons, History Instruction, History, Knowledge Level
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Bolger, Molly S.; Kobiela, Marta; Weinberg, Paul J.; Lehrer, Richard – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
Reasoning about mechanisms is one of the hallmarks of disciplined inquiry in science and engineering, but comparatively little is known about its precursors and development. Children at grades 2 and 5 predicted and explained the motion of simple mechanical systems composed entirely of visible linkages (levers). Students' explanations of device…
Descriptors: Motion, Concept Formation, Grade 2, Logical Thinking
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Ford, Michael J. – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
This article identifies aspects of argumentation in scientific practice that are key for scientific sense-making and articulates how engagement in these aspects happens both inter-mentally (between people) and intra-mentally (an individual's reasoning). Institutionally, peer review exerts critique on new knowledge claims in science and is…
Descriptors: Persuasive Discourse, Logical Thinking, Criticism, Physics
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Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L. – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
Children's estimation patterns on a number line estimation task may provide information about the mental representation of the magnitude of numbers. Siegler and his colleagues concluded that children's mental representations shift from a logarithmic-ruler representation to a linear-ruler representation. However, there are important methodological…
Descriptors: Computation, Numbers, Cognitive Processes, Kindergarten
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Barzilai, Sarit; Zohar, Anat – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
This study examines epistemic thinking in action in order to shed light on the relation between students' personal epistemologies and their online learning practices. The study is based on observations of the learning behaviors of 6th-grade students (n = 38) during two online inquiry tasks. Data were collected through think-aloud protocols and…
Descriptors: Electronic Learning, Protocol Analysis, Online Courses, Learning Strategies
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Baroody, Arthur J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Purpura, David J.; Reid, Erin E. – Cognition and Instruction, 2012
A 9-month training experiment evaluated whether computer-assisted discovery learning of arithmetic regularities can facilitate kindergartners' fluency with the easiest sums. After a pretest, kindergartners with at least one risk factor (n = 28) were randomly assigned to either a structured add-0/1 training condition, which focused on recognizing…
Descriptors: Mathematics Achievement, At Risk Students, Discovery Learning, Kindergarten
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Warren, James E. – Cognition and Instruction, 2011
In this study, eight English professors thought aloud as they read four lyric poems and composed a short text proposing a hypothetical talk about them for a professional conference. The study used a crossed design in which participants read a poem in each of the following conditions: familiar to them and close to their professional writing,…
Descriptors: Expertise, Poetry, English Instruction, Conferences (Gatherings)
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Rogat, Toni Kempler; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa – Cognition and Instruction, 2011
This study extends prior research on both individual self-regulation and socially shared regulation during group learning to examine the range and quality of the cognitive and behavioral social regulatory sub-processes employed by six small collaborative groups of upper-elementary students (n = 24). Qualitative analyses were conducted based on…
Descriptors: Social Control, Cooperation, Group Dynamics, Elementary School Students
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Johnson, Amy M.; Azevedo, Roger; D'Mello, Sidney K. – Cognition and Instruction, 2011
This study examined the temporal and dynamic nature of students' self-regulatory processes while learning about the circulatory system with hypermedia. A total of 74 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: independent learning or externally assisted learning. Participants in the independent learning condition used a…
Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Undergraduate Students, Intervals, Independent Study
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Palmer, Alexis; Baroody, Arthur J. – Cognition and Instruction, 2011
A mother tracked her preschooler's number word development daily from 18 to 49 months of age. Naturalistic observations were supplemented with observations during structured (Kumon) training and microgenetic testing. The boy's everyday use of "two" did not become highly reliable and selective for 10 months (at 28 months), emerged later than that…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Numbers, Number Concepts, Concept Mapping
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Philip, Thomas M. – Cognition and Instruction, 2011
This article makes a unique contribution to the literature on teachers' racialized sensemaking by proposing a framework of "ideology in pieces" that synthesizes Hall's (1982, 1996) theory of ideology and diSessa's (1993) theory of conceptual change. Hall's theory of ideology enables an examination of teachers' sensemaking as situated within a…
Descriptors: Social Justice, Race, Ideology, Racial Factors
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