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Reyhner, Jon – Cogent Education, 2017
With the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the United States spent millions upon millions of dollars in a largely unsuccessful effort to close the academic achievement gap between American-Indian and some other ethnic minorities and mainstream Americans. NCLB's focus on teacher quality and evidence-based curriculum and…
Descriptors: American Indians, Language Role, Self Concept, American Indian Languages
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Shabani, Karim – Cogent Education, 2016
Dynamic assessment (DA) research, still in its infancy, takes its roots from Vygotsky's concept of zone of proximal development (ZPD) to account for learner's developmental process. Breaking away from a static, incomplete and, thus, unethical assessment of learner's abilities, DA came to the fore to better crystallize learner's levels of abilities…
Descriptors: Sociocultural Patterns, Psychometrics, Second Language Learning, Ethics
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Zhao, Chuqiao – Cogent Education, 2016
This review paper examines how standardized language assessment affects Chinese young learners' motivation for second-language learning. By presenting the historical and contemporary contexts of the testing system in China, this paper seeks to demonstrate the interrelationship among cultural, social, familial, and individual factors, which…
Descriptors: Standardized Tests, Language Tests, Second Language Learning, Learning Motivation