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Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf – British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2014
Background: The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects…
Descriptors: Self Concept, Mathematics Achievement, Verbal Ability, Validity