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Liaw, Yuan-Ling; Wu, Yuanyue; Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie – Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 2018
International large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) have emerged as important tools for understanding educational systems within Asia and around the world. Although the achievement scales tend to capture the majority of the world's attention the background scales have become important tools in…
Descriptors: International Assessment, Foreign Countries, Secondary School Students, Achievement Tests