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ERIC Number: EJ848167
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0889-9401
Engineering Discovery Learning: The Contingency Adduction of Some Precursors of Textual Responding in a Beginning Reading Program
Layng, T. V. Joe; Twyman, Janet S.; Stikeleather, Greg
Analysis of Verbal Behavior, v20 p99-109 2004
A learning situation in which the principal content of what is to be learned is not given but is independently discovered by the learner is often considered "discovery learning." Recently, learning scientists have been able to make explicit some of the conditions under which such independent discovery is likely to occur (Andronis, 1983; Epstein, 1996; Johnson & Layng, 1992). One form of "discovery" can often be observed when skills learned under one set of conditions are recruited under new conditions to serve a new or different function--a process of "contingency adduction" (Andronis, Layng, & Goldiamond, 1997). The research reported here investigated the application of contingency adduction in a discovery learning context to establish sound-to-letter correspondence as part of an online reading/decoding program, Headsprout Early Reading. Beginning readers acquired novel letters/sounds correspondence with minimal presentations and few errors--often requiring only one presentation. This research suggests that instructional sequences may be designed to provide effective discovery learning activities to teach some phonics skills. (Contains 1 table, 3 footnotes, and 5 figures.)
Association for Behavior Analysis International. 1219 South Park Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Tel: 269-492-9310; Fax: 269-492-9316; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A