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Showing 166 to 180 of 194 results Save | Export
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Lowenkron, Barry – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2006
This research examined the role the two constituents of joint control, the tact and the echoic, play in producing accurate selections of novel stimuli in response to their spoken descriptions. Experiment 1 examined the role of tacts. In response to unfamiliar spoken descriptions, children learned to select from among six successively presented…
Descriptors: Stimuli, Probability, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension), Selection
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Palmer, David C. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
In this article, the author shares an anecdote demonstrating one-trial learning which is commonplace in human behavior. The demonstration suggests that under some conditions, when people hear someone speak, their behavior changes, even in the absence of an apparent contingency of reinforcement, but only if they have in their repertoire verbal…
Descriptors: Behavior Change, Reinforcement, Listening, Learning
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Halvey, Christine; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
The purpose of this project was to demonstrate untrained vocal requests in three adults with severe developmental disabilities. Specifically, we evaluated whether a history of reinforced relational responding would give rise to untrained vocal requests for novel items. Participants were first taught to request preferred items using their category…
Descriptors: Developmental Disabilities, Responses, Adults, Severe Disabilities
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Miguel, C. F.; Petursdottir, A. I.; Carr, J. E. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
The purpose of this study was to determine whether multiple-tact training and receptive-discrimination training could be used to teach thematically related vocal intraverbals to typically developing preschool children. Multiple-tact training involved teaching a child to name both the item and the category to which the item belonged.…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Visual Stimuli, Verbal Communication, Classification
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Esch, B. E.; Carr, J. E.; Michael, J. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
Many children with autism do not imitate adult vocalizations, an important skill in learning to talk. Pairing adult vocalizations with preferred stimuli has been shown to increase free-operant vocalizations but effects are temporary; thus, direct reinforcement may be necessary to establish durable vocal behaviors. In Experiment 1, directly…
Descriptors: Autism, Reinforcement, Language Acquisition, Young Children
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Petursdottir, A. I.; Carr, J. E.; Michael, J. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
According to Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, the mand and the tact are functionally independent verbal operants, each of which is acquired through a unique history of reinforcement. The present study attempted to replicate the findings of Lamarre and Holland (1985), who empirically demonstrated functional independence of mands and…
Descriptors: Verbal Stimuli, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension), Preschool Children, Reinforcement
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Houmanfar, R.; Hayes, L. J.; Herbst, S. A. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
The purpose of this study was to design a model for "first language" dominance over "second language" performance and the interference of one language over the other. Two sets of equivalence relations showing a common element (i.e., the reference) were established under different contextual conditions. One set ("first language") was over trained…
Descriptors: Language Dominance, Interference (Language), Second Languages, Bilingualism
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Greer, R. D.; Yaun, L.; Gautreaux, G. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
We tested the effect of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on acquisition of joint spelling responses, vocal to written and vice versa, for three sets of five words by four kindergarteners with language delays using a delayed multiple probe design. First, students were taught to spell Set 1 as either vocal or written responses (two vocal and two…
Descriptors: Spelling, Responses, Instructional Effectiveness, Verbal Communication
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Newman, B.; Eyck, P. T. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
During prebaseline observations, three students diagnosed with autism were unable to make social initiations to another individual. The ability to make initiations would be considered a "pivotal response" in that it would allow an individual to come into contact with a wide variety of social reinforcement. A multiple-baseline design was…
Descriptors: Program Effectiveness, Autism, Social Reinforcement, Interpersonal Relationship
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Greer, R. D.; Stolfi, L.; Chavez-Brown, M.; Rivera-Valdes, C. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
We tested the effect of multiple exemplar instruction on the transfer of stimulus function for unfamiliar pictures across listener responses (i.e., matching and pointing) and speaker responses (i.e., pure tacts and impure tacts). Three preschool students, who were 3- and 4-year-old males and did not have the listener to speaker component of the…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Objective Tests, Listening, Responses
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Hartman, E. C.; Klatt, K. P. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
The effects of at least 23-hr deprivation, 5-min presession exposure, and individual preference on the acquisition of mands were investigated in these studies. Two boys who were 2.5 years old and diagnosed with autism participated in the studies. Preference assessments were conducted to identify preference levels of various toys. Toys of various…
Descriptors: Autism, Toys, Disadvantaged Environment, Teaching Methods
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Karmali, I.; Greer, R. D.; Nuzzolo-Gomez, R.; Ross, D. E.; Rivera-Valdes, C. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
Palilalia, the delayed repetition of words or phrases, occurs frequently among individuals with autism and developmental disabilities. The current study used a combined multiple baseline and reversal design to investigate the effectiveness of presenting tacts as corrections for palilalia. During baseline, five preschoolers with autism emitted high…
Descriptors: Autism, Developmental Disabilities, Communication Disorders, Verbal Communication
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Barbera, M. L.; Kubina, R. M., Jr. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
This applied study attempted to evaluate a combination of transfer procedures commonly used to teach tacts to children with autism. A receptive to echoic to tact transfer and an echoic to tact transfer procedure were combined during 5-min instructional sessions to teach tacts to a seven-year-old vocal child with autism. A multiple baseline design…
Descriptors: Autism, Teaching Methods, Young Children, Language Acquisition
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Andery, M. A.; Micheletto, N.; Serio, T. M. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
This paper explores the historical development of Skinner's treatment of meaning from 1930 to 1957. Twelve papers published between 1934 and 1957, and parts of "The Behavior of Organisms and Science and Human Behavior" related to verbal behavior, were analyzed. Before 1945 meaning was taken as a property of the verbal response, and from 1945 on,…
Descriptors: Speech, Behavior, Responses, Social Scientists
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Malott, Richard W. – Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2005
This article reviews the negative behavior-analytic commentary on Drash and Tudor's behavior-analytic analysis of the etiology of autistic repertoires and values. This article also asks that, in our effort to scrub it clean, we not drown Drash and Tudor's beautiful, but fragile, new-born, behavior-analytic baby in hyper-methodological,…
Descriptors: Autism, Etiology, Behavior Problems, Antisocial Behavior
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