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Richardson, John G. – American Educational Research Journal, 1994
Proposes that the formalization of common schooling in the United States derives from the sequence of institutional formation beginning with the state asylum, moving to the reformatory, and then moving to compulsory attendance. Shows the integration of delinquent and special youth in the U.S. educational system. Contains 112 references. (SLD)
Descriptors: Compulsory Education, Delinquency, Educational History, Educational Philosophy
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Thomas, William B.; Moran, Kevin J. – American Educational Research Journal, 1992
To test R. E. Callahan's (1962) theory about superintendents' vulnerability to interest groups, the career of E. C. Hartwell is examined. Hartwell's career in three cities (1914-22) demonstrates the power that a superintendent could acquire and wield. (SLD)
Descriptors: Administrator Role, Career Ladders, Educational Change, Educational History