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Thomas, William B.; Moran, Kevin J. – American Educational Research Journal, 1992
To test R. E. Callahan's (1962) theory about superintendents' vulnerability to interest groups, the career of E. C. Hartwell is examined. Hartwell's career in three cities (1914-22) demonstrates the power that a superintendent could acquire and wield. (SLD)
Descriptors: Administrator Role, Career Ladders, Educational Change, Educational History