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Moller, Jens; Retelsdorf, Jan; Koller, Olaf; Marsh, Herb W. – American Educational Research Journal, 2011
The reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model and the reciprocal effects model. The RI/EM predicts positive effects of mathematics and verbal achievement and academic self-concepts (ASC) on subsequent mathematics and verbal achievements and ASCs within domains and negative…
Descriptors: Grades (Scholastic), Self Concept, Academic Achievement, Models