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Cesar, Dana; Smith, Joan K. – American Educational History Journal, 2008
Women pioneers and frontier teachers have been the subject of numerous books and articles. Generally, the portrait has been one of self-sacrifice, dedication to God, family and home, with little or no concern for personal needs or goals. Continuing with a premise that teachers in Indian Territory used religious sanctions and faced greater peril in…
Descriptors: Sanctions, Females, Educational History, Profiles
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Cesar, Dana T.; Smith, Joan K. – American Educational History Journal, 2007
Mary Coombs Greenleaf sought to take her place among the many frontier teachers who preceded her in 1800s. However, her destination--Indian Territory--was distinctive from previous American frontiers in that it was the geographical solution to a long record of Indian eradication policy. Mary Greenleaf was fifty-six years old, having just lost her…
Descriptors: Women Faculty, Females, Personality Traits, Teacher Characteristics
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Tetzloff, Lisa M. – American Educational History Journal, 2007
This article traces the history of Native American women clubs from 1899-1955. In its heyday in the early 1900s, the women's club movement attracted about two million participants nationwide. Excluded from higher education at the time, women were moved to create their own opportunities to learn, meeting regularly in small groups to study such…
Descriptors: Females, American Indians, Clubs, United States History
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Cesar, Dana; Smith, Joan K.; Noley, Grayson – American Educational History Journal, 2004
The Wright family, descended from the patriarch Allen Wright, who arrived in the new Choctaw Nation after surviving the "Trail of Tears," played an important role in Oklahoma politics and society. Following removal to Oklahoma, Allen went on to become Principal Chief of the Choctaw Nation and gave the name, Oklahoma, to the southwest territory. He…
Descriptors: American Indians, American Indian History, Cultural Context, Periodicals