ERIC Number: EJ1144772
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Elementary Schools, Teaching, and Social Studies in Texas: Facing the Great Depression
Bellows, M. Elizabeth; Baumi, Michelle; Field, Sherry L.
American Educational History Journal, v40 n2 p261-278 2013
Across the United States, the Great Depression was a period of tremendous upheaval. Economic, family, political, and educational institutions shook mightily as the tremors of widespread financial downturn were felt. Public schools faced increasing hardships, which included financial problems such as a weakened tax base due to the non-payment of property and school taxes; personnel problems such as non-payment and/or layoffs of teachers; and academic problems such as shortened school terms, elimination of programs, firing married female teachers, and children leaving school to help their families meet economic needs. The financial strain on schools throughout the United States during the Depression is well documented in the literature (Freedman 2005; Moreo 1996; Stanley 1992; Tyack, Lowe, and Hansot 1984). In many cases, the educational gains made during the 1920s seemed to evaporate during the Depression years. This article, the second in a larger study of schooling during the Great Depression, highlights teachers' challenges to win professional status and voice in educational issues in Texas during that time, and how, despite these challenges, educational professionals fought to keep the school day. The article examines professional issues educators encountered during the difficult financial times in the 1930s. It also illustrates the types of curricular trends that surfaced in the social studies as reported in the pages of "Texas Outlook" magazine from 1933-1937.
Descriptors: Educational History, Financial Exigency, Educational Finance, Social Studies, Teaching Methods, Financial Problems, Taxes, Job Layoff, Teacher Dismissal, Barriers, Professional Recognition, Teacher Attitudes, Educational Attitudes, Periodicals, Professional Associations, Curriculum, Educational Trends, Trend Analysis, Student Projects, Units of Study, Group Membership, Elementary School Teachers, Economic Climate
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Texas