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Romero, Kristoffer; Moscovitch, Morris – Journal of Memory and Language, 2012
Construction of imaginative or fictitious events requires the flexible recombination of stored information into novel representations. How this process is accomplished is not understood fully. To address this problem, older adults (mean age = 74.2; Experiment 1) and younger patients with MTL lesions (mean age = 54.2; Experiment 2), both of whom…
Descriptors: Control Groups, Older Adults, Patients, Memory
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Bulevich, John B.; Thomas, Ayanna K. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2012
Retrieval demand, as implemented through test format and retrieval instructions, was varied across two misinformation experiments. Our goal was to examine whether increasing retrieval demand would improve the relationship between confidence and memory performance, and thereby reduce misinformation susceptibility. We hypothesized that improving the…
Descriptors: Memory, Memorization, Experiments, Responses
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Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Smith, Megan A. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2012
Does retrieval practice produce learning because it is an especially effective way to induce elaborative encoding? Four experiments examined this question. Subjects learned word pairs across alternating study and recall periods, and once an item was recalled it was dropped from further practice, repeatedly studied, or repeatedly retrieved on…
Descriptors: Verbal Stimuli, Recall (Psychology), Mnemonics, Experiments
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Pansky, Ainat; Tenenboim, Einat; Bar, Sarah Kate – Journal of Memory and Language, 2011
Recent findings indicate that retained information tends to converge at the basic level (BL). The aim of the present study was to apply these findings to the investigation of misinformation phenomena. In three experiments, we examined the extent to which the contaminating effects of misinformation are influenced by its consistency with the…
Descriptors: Intervals, Recall (Psychology), Memory, Experiments
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Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2010
A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…
Descriptors: Cues, Testing, Recall (Psychology), Retention (Psychology)
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Hoover, Jill R.; Storkel, Holly L.; Hogan, Tiffany P. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2010
Two experiments examined the effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on word learning by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Nonwords orthogonally varying in probability and density were taught with learning and retention measured via picture naming. Experiment 1 used a within story probability/across story density exposure…
Descriptors: Neighborhoods, Preschool Children, Probability, Language Acquisition
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Thomas, Ayanna K.; Bulevich, John B.; Chan, Jason C. K. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2010
Numerous studies have demonstrated that repeated retrieval boosts later retention. However, recent research has shown that testing can increase eyewitness susceptibility to misleading post-event information (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). The present study examines the effects of warning on this counterintuitive finding. In two…
Descriptors: Testing, Retention (Psychology), Task Analysis, Video Technology
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Maybery, Murray T.; Clissa, Peter J.; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Leung, Doris; Harsa, Grefin; Fox, Allison M.; Jones, Dylan M. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2009
The present study investigated the binding of verbal identity and spatial location in the retention of sequences of spatially distributed acoustic stimuli. Study stimuli varying in verbal content and spatial location (e.g. V[subscript 1]S[subscript 1], V[subscript 2]S[subscript 2], V[subscript 3]S[subscript 3], V[subscript 4]S[subscript 4]) were…
Descriptors: Verbal Stimuli, Short Term Memory, Cognitive Processes, Spatial Ability
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Chan, Jason C. K. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2009
Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material--a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). "Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory." "Journal…
Descriptors: Testing, Long Term Memory, Experimental Psychology, Word Processing
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Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Roediger, Henry L., III – Journal of Memory and Language, 2007
Tests not only measure the contents of memory, they can also enhance learning and long-term retention. We report two experiments inspired by Tulving's (1967) pioneering work on the effects of testing on multitrial free recall. Subjects learned lists of words across multiple study and test trials and took a final recall test 1 week after learning.…
Descriptors: Testing, Memory, Retention (Psychology), Long Term Memory
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Bahrick, H.P.; Hall, L.K. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2005
Encoding strategies vary in their duration of effectiveness, and individuals can best identify and modify strategies that yield effects of short duration on the basis of retrieval failures. Multiple study sessions with long inter-session intervals are better than massed training at providing discriminative feedback that identifies encoding…
Descriptors: Intervals, Investigations, Retention (Psychology)
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Henkel, Linda A. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2004
The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…
Descriptors: Guessing (Tests), Recall (Psychology), Error Patterns, Visualization
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Nairne, James S.; Kelley, Matthew R. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2004
In the present paper, we develop and apply a technique, based on the logic of process dissociation, for obtaining numerical estimates of item and order information. Certain variables, such as phonological similarity, are widely believed to produce dissociative effects on item and order retention. However, such beliefs rest on the questionable…
Descriptors: Memory, Phonology, Language Processing, Cognitive Tests
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Saito, Satoru; Miyake, Akira – Journal of Memory and Language, 2004
Four experiments examined the nature of forgetting and the processing--storage relationship during performance on a prevalent working memory task, the reading span test. Using two different presentation paradigms, Experiments 1 and 2 replicated Towse, Hitch, and Hutton's (1998, 2000) finding that the Short-Final lists, which presented a long…
Descriptors: Language Processing, Recall (Psychology), Reading Tests, Retention (Psychology)
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Oberauer, Klaus; Lange, Elke; Engle, Randall W. – Journal of Memory and Language, 2004
Single-task and dual-task versions of verbal and spatial serial order memory tasks were administered to 120 students tested for working memory capacity with four previously validated measures. In the dual-task versions, similarity between the memory material and the material of the secondary processing task was varied. With verbal material, three…
Descriptors: Memory, Interference (Language), Correlation, Reading Aloud to Others
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