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Carpenter, Shana K.; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Rohrer, Doug; Kang, Sean H. K.; Pashler, Harold – Online Submission, 2012
Every day students and instructors are faced with the decision of when to study information. The timing of study, and how it affects memory retention, has been explored for many years in research on human learning. This research has shown that performance on final tests of learning is improved if multiple study sessions are separated--i.e.,…
Descriptors: Memory, Intervals, Retention (Psychology), Educational Improvement
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Carpenter, Shana K.; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Rohrer, Doug; Kang, Sean H. K.; Pashler, Harold – Educational Psychology Review, 2012
Every day, students and instructors are faced with the decision of when to study information. The timing of study, and how it affects memory retention, has been explored for many years in research on human learning. This research has shown that performance on final tests of learning is improved if multiple study sessions are separated--i.e.,…
Descriptors: Intervals, Time Factors (Learning), Learning Processes, Educational Research
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Kang, Sean H. K.; Pashler, Harold; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Rohrer, Doug; Carpenter, Shana K.; Mozer, Michael C. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2011
Taking a test has been shown to produce enhanced retention of the retrieved information. On tests, however, students often encounter questions the answers for which they are unsure. Should they guess anyway, even if they are likely to answer incorrectly? Or are errors engrained, impairing subsequent learning of the correct answer? We sought to…
Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Guessing (Tests), Correlation, Error Correction
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Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T.; Mozer, Michael C,; Pashler, Harold – Online Submission, 2009
More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary,…
Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Intervals, Educational Practices, Retention (Psychology)
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Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Hal – Online Submission, 2007
Because people forget much of what they learn, students could benefit from learning strategies that provide long-lasting knowledge. Yet surprisingly little is known about how long-term retention is most efficiently achieved. Here we examine how retention is affected by two variables: the duration of a study session and the temporal distribution…
Descriptors: Study Habits, Mathematics Education, Intervals, Learning Strategies
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Pashler, Harold; Rohrer, Doug; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Carpenter, Shana K. – Online Submission, 2007
Our research on learning enhancement has been focusing on the consequences for learning and forgetting of some of the more obvious and concrete choices that arise in instruction, including: How does spacing of practice affect retention of information over significant retention intervals (up to two years)? Do spacing effects generalize beyond…
Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Testing, Cognitive Psychology, Intervals
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Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Vul, Edward; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T.; Pashler, Harold – Online Submission, 2008
To achieve enduring retention, people must usually study information on multiple occasions. How does the timing of study events affect retention? Prior research has examined this issue only in a spotty fashion, usually with very short time intervals. To characterize spacing effects over significant durations, over 1,350 individuals were taught a…
Descriptors: Intervals, Educational Practices, Retention (Psychology), Long Term Memory
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Pashler, Harold; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Wixted, John T.; Rohrer, Doug – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2005
Some researchers have suggested that although feedback may enhance performance during associative learning, it does so at the expense of later retention. To examine this issue, subjects (N = 258) learned Luganda-English word pairs. After 2 initial exposures to the materials, subjects were tested on each item several times, with the presence and…
Descriptors: Feedback, Associative Learning, Second Language Instruction, Retention (Psychology)
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Rohrer, Doug; Taylor, Kelli – Online Submission, 2006
In two experiments, 216 college students learned a mathematical procedure and returned for a test either one or four weeks later. In Experiment 1, performance on the four-week test was virtually doubled when students distributed 10 practice problems across two sessions instead of massing the same 10 problems in one session. This finding suggests…
Descriptors: Textbooks, Cognitive Psychology, Undergraduate Students, Retention (Psychology)
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Rohrer, Doug; Taylor, Kelli; Pashler, Harold; Wixted, John T.; Cepeda, Nicholas J. – Online Submission, 2005
Once material has been learned to a criterion of one perfect trial, further study within the same session constitutes overlearning. Although overlearning is a popular learning strategy, its effect on long-term retention is unclear. In two experiments presented here, 218 college students learned geography facts (Experiment 1) or word definitions…
Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Learning Strategies, Cognitive Psychology, Memory